, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 2267–2272 | Cite as

Sub-Wavelength Grating Enhanced Ultra-Narrow Graphene Perfect Absorber

  • Zengyue Zhao
  • Guanhai LiEmail author
  • Feilong Yu
  • Hui Yang
  • Xiaoshuang ChenEmail author
  • Wei Lu


A sub-wavelength grating has been elaborately designed to enhance the absorption of the monolayer graphene at λ = 1.55 μm based on the coupled leaky mode theory (CLMT). The results indicate that the absorption can reach 99.8% at the resonant wavelength, and the absorption peak is ultra-narrow due to the excitation of TM31 mode in the grating structure. Taking advantages of the tunable chemical potential of graphene which is bias voltage controllable, the proposed structure can function as an adjustable absorber. The high figure of merit up to 1329 and sensitivity with the value of 66 are achieved. With the ultra-narrow absorption band and tunable peak positions, the graphene perfect absorber holds great potential application in sensing and biology.


Graphene Ultra-narrow perfect absorber Sub-wavelength grating Sensing 


Funding information

The authors acknowledge the support provided by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2017YFA0205801), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11334008, 61705249, 61290301 and 61521005), the Fund of Shanghai Science and Technology Foundation (16JC1400401, 16ZR1445300, 16JC1400404), Shanghai Sailing Program (16YF1413200), Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2017285), and Key research project of Frontier Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDJ-SSW-JSC007).


  1. 1.
    Bao Q, Loh KP (2012) Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices. ACS Nano 6(5):3677–3694CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choi MK, Park I, Kim DC, Joh E, Park OK, Kim J, Kim M, Choi C, Yang J, Cho KW, Hwang JH, Nam JM, Hyeon T, Kim JH, Kim DH (2015) Thermally controlled, patterned graphene transfer printing for transparent and wearable electronic/optoelectronic system. Adv Funct Mater 25(46):7109–7118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kong WY, Wu GA, Wang KY, Zhang TF, Zou YF, Wang DD, Luo LB (2016) Graphene-beta-Ga2O3 heterojunction for highly sensitive deep UV photodetector application. Adv Mater 28(48):10725–10731CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gan XT, Shiue RJ, Gao YD, Meric I, Heinz TF, Shepard K, Hone J, Assefa S, Englund D (2013) Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity. Nat Photonics 7(11):883–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nair RR, Blake P, Grigorenko AN, Novoselov KS, Booth TJ, Stauber T, Peres NMR, Geim AK (2008) Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene. Science 320(5881):1308–1308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grigorenko AN, Polini M, Novoselov KS (2012) Graphene plasmonics. Nat Photonics 6(11):749–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhu XL, Yan W, Jepsen PU, Hansen O, Mortensen NA, Xiao SS (2013) Experimental observation of plasmons in a graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating. Appl Phys Lett 102(13):4Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thongrattanasiri S, Koppens FHL, de Abajo FJG (2012) Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene. Phys Rev Lett 108(4):5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jang MS, Brar VW, Sherrott MC, Lopez JJ, Kim L, Kim S, Choi M, Atwater HA (2014) Tunable large resonant absorption in a midinfrared graphene Salisbury screen. Phys Rev B 90(16):5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alaee R, Farhat M, Rockstuhl C, Lederer F (2012) A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial. Opt Express 20(27):28017–28024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Piper JR, Fan S (2014) Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance. ACS Photonics 1(4):347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu YH, Chadha A, Zhao DY, Piper JR, Jia YC, Shuai YC, Menon L, Yang HJ, Ma ZQ, Fan SH, Xia FN, Zhou WD (2014) Approaching total absorption at near infrared in a large area monolayer graphene by critical coupling. Appl Phys Lett 105(18):4Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guo J, Wu L, Dai X, Xiang Y, Fan D (2017) Absorption enhancement and total absorption in a graphene-waveguide hybrid structure. AIP Adv 7(2):025101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu YL, Cao LY (2012) Coupled leaky mode theory for light absorption in 2D, 1D, and 0D semiconductor nanostructures. Opt Express 20(13):13847–13856CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cao LY, White JS, Park JS, Schuller JA, Clemens BM, Brongersma ML (2009) Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices. Nat Mater 8(8):643–647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huang LJ, Yu YL, Cao LY (2013) General modal properties of optical resonances in subwavelength nonspherical dielectric structures. Nano Lett 13(8):3559–3565CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yu YL, Cao LY (2013) The phase shift of light scattering at sub-wavelength dielectric structures. Opt Express 21(5):5957–5967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palik ED (1998) Handbook of optical constants of solids. AcademicPress, BostonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hanson GW (2008) Dyadic Green's functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene. J Appl Phys 103(6):064302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yariv A (2000) Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides. Electron Lett 36(4):321–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu N, Mesch M, Weiss T, Hentschel M, Giessen H (2010) Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor. Nano Lett 10(7):2342–2348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu ZQ, Hang JT, Chen J, Yan ZD, Tang CJ, Chen Z, Zhan P (2012) Optical transmission of corrugated metal films on a two-dimensional hetero-colloidal crystal. Opt Express 20(8):9215–9225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of Physical Science and TechnologyShanghaiTech UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations