, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 899–904 | Cite as

Photonic Crystal Waveguide Biochemical Sensor for the Approximation of Chemical Components Concentrations



The rapid progress in chemical and biochemical applications with optical interfaces has motivated an ever-increasing demand for highly sensitive, accurate, and disposable photonic components. We propose a design of biochemical sensor to identify the chemical components acid concentrations with a greater accuracy using photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). It consists of circular air holes of radius 0.44 a (a being the lattice constant), arranged in a hexagonal structure on silicon on insulator (SOI). Due to change in refractive index of the sample, resonance wavelength shifts towards higher wavelengths (red shift) with a higher coefficient of determination. The proposed design allows desired input wavelength of 1550 nm to be guided in the waveguide for an effective identification of chemical component concentration. Resolution and limit of detection are calculated as 1.2 nm and 4 × 10−2 RIU for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution and 0.2 nm and 2 × 10−2 RIU for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. Improved sensitivities with increased standard deviations are achieved after structural optimization.


Photonic bandgap materials Photonic crystals Waveguide Optical sensing and sensors Optical properties 


  1. 1.
    Fraenkel D (2015) Structure and ionization of sulfuric acid in water. New J Chem 39:5124–5136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Painam B, Teotia PK, Kaler RS, Kumar M (2014) Bio-Chemical Sensor Based on Photonic Crystal Waveguide for Estimation of Sulphuric Acid Concentration. In: 12th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics. OSA, Kharagpur, India, p S5A.48Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Das TN (2005) Saturation concentration of dissolved O-2 in highly acidic aqueous solutions of H2SO4. Ind Eng Chem Res 44:1660–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buljubasich L, Blumich B, Stapf S (2010) Quantification of H(2)O(2) concentrations in aqueous solutions by means of combined NMR and pH measurements. Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:13166–13173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lafleur JP, Jönsson A, Senkbeil S, Kutter JP (2016) Recent advances in lab-on-a-chip for biosensing applications. Biosens Bioelectron 76:213–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen G, Kang JU (2005) Waveguide mode converter based on two-dimensional photonic crystals. Opt Lett 30:1656–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Palai G, Mudului N, Sahoo SK, Tripathy SK, Patanaik SK (2013) Realization of potassium chloride sensor using photonic crystal fiber. Soft Nanosci Lett 3:16–19Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma A, Kumar M (2015) Flat band slow light in silicon photonic crystal waveguide with large delay bandwidth product and low group velocity dispersion. IET Optoelectron 9:24–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharkawy A, Pustai D, Shi SY, Prather DW (2003) High transmission through waveguide bends by use of polycrystalline photonic-crystal structures. Opt Lett 28:1197–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Janrao N, Janyani V (2014) Nonlinear performance in silicon nitride slow light photonic crystal waveguides with elliptical holes. Optik 125:3081–3084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gong Q, Hu X (2014) Photonic Crystals: Principles and Applications. Pan Stanford, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pisco M, Ricciardi A, Gallina I, Castaldi G, Campopiano S, Cutolo A et al (2010) Tuning efficiency and sensitivity of guided resonances in photonic crystals and quasi-crystals: a comparative study. Opt Express 18:17280–17293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cunningham BT, Zhang M, Zhuo Y, Kwon L, Race C (2016) Recent advances in biosensing with photonic crystal surfaces: a review. IEEE Sensors J 16:3349–3366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Joannopoulos JD, Johnson SG, Winn JN, Meade RD (2011) Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light. Princeton university press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thind JK, Kumar M, Kaushik BK (2015) Electrical tuning of optical delay in graphene-based photonic crystal waveguide. IEEE J Quantum Electron 51:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tamura T, Kondo K, Terada Y, Hinakura Y, Ishikura N, Baba T (2015) Silica-clad silicon photonic crystal waveguides for wideband dispersion-free slow light. J Lightwave Technol 33:3034–3040Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sai VVR, Kundu T, Deshmukh C, Titus S, Kumar P, Mukherji S (2010) Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on evanescent wave absorbance at 280 nm. Sensors Actuators B Chem 143:724–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yong Z, Ya-Nan Z, Qi W, Haifeng H (2015) Review on the optimization methods of slow light in photonic crystal waveguide. IEEE Trans Nanotechnol 14:407–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Palai G, Tripathy SK (2014) Measurement of glycerol concentration in B-H-G solution using 3D photonic crystal structure. Optik 125:2875–2879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sukhoivanov IA, Guryev IV (2009) Photonic crystals: physics and practical modeling. Springer, Heidelberg, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li T, Gao D, Zhang D, Cassan E (2016) High-and high-sensitivity one-dimensional photonic crystal slot nanobeam cavity sensors. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 28:689–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Painam B, Kaler RS, Kumar M Label Free Chemical and Biochemical Sensing using Photonic Crystal Waveguide at Sodium-D Line. J Nanoelectron Optoelectron (In press)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    White IM, Fan X (2008) On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors. Opt Express 16:1020–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Optical Fiber Communication Research Laboratory (OFCR Lab), ECE DepartmentThapar Institute of Engineering and Technology UniversityPatialaIndia
  2. 2.Integrated Photonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyIndoreIndia

Personalised recommendations