Frontiers of Physics

, 14:13608 | Cite as

Stacking transition in rhombohedral graphite

  • Tataiana Latychevskaia
  • Seok-Kyun Son
  • Yaping Yang
  • Dale Chancellor
  • Michael Brown
  • Servet Ozdemir
  • Ivan Madan
  • Gabriele Berruto
  • Fabrizio Carbone
  • Artem Mishchenko
  • Kostya S. NovoselovEmail author
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Graphene and other Two-Dimensional Materials


Few-layer graphene (FLG) has recently been intensively investigated for its variable electronic properties, which are defined by a local atomic arrangement. While the most natural arrangement of layers in FLG is ABA (Bernal) stacking, a metastable ABC (rhombohedral) stacking, characterized by a relatively high-energy barrier, can also occur. When both types of stacking occur in one FLG device, the arrangement results in an in-plane heterostructure with a domain wall (DW). In this paper, we present two approaches to demonstrate that the ABC stacking in FLG can be controllably and locally turned into the ABA stacking. In the first approach, we introduced Joule heating, and the transition was characterized by 2D peak Raman spectra at a submicron spatial resolution. The transition was initiated in a small region, and then the DW was controllably shifted until the entire device became ABA stacked. In the second approach, the transition was achieved by illuminating the ABC region with a train of 790-nm-wavelength laser pulses, and the transition was visualized by transmission electron microscopy in both diffraction and dark-field imaging modes. Further, using this approach, the DW was visualized at a nanoscale spatial resolution in the dark-field imaging mode.


graphene graphite van der Waals heterostructures domain wall Raman spectroscopy transmission electron microscopy electron diffraction structural transition 



The LUMES laboratory acknowledges support from the NCCR MUST. G. B. acknowledges financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) through the Grant No. 200021 159219/1. S. K. S. and A. M. acknowledge the support of EPSRC Early Career Fellowship EP/N007131/1. Y. Y. acknowledges the support of China Scholarship Council. We would like to acknowledge Giovanni M. Vanacore for insightful discussions.

Supplementary material

11467_2018_867_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (908 kb)
Stacking transition in rhombohedral graphite


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tataiana Latychevskaia
    • 1
  • Seok-Kyun Son
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yaping Yang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Dale Chancellor
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michael Brown
    • 2
    • 3
  • Servet Ozdemir
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ivan Madan
    • 1
  • Gabriele Berruto
    • 1
  • Fabrizio Carbone
    • 1
  • Artem Mishchenko
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kostya S. Novoselov
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Physics, Laboratory for Ultrafast Microscopy and Electron Scattering (LUMES)École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)LausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.National Graphene InstituteUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  3. 3.School of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

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