Frontiers of Physics

, 13:130306 | Cite as

Robust general N user authentication scheme in a centralized quantum communication network via generalized GHZ states

  • Ahmed Farouk
  • J. Batle
  • M. Elhoseny
  • Mosayeb Naseri
  • Muzaffar Lone
  • Alex Fedorov
  • Majid Alkhambashi
  • Syed Hassan Ahmed
  • M. Abdel-Aty
Research Article


Quantum communication provides an enormous advantage over its classical counterpart: security of communications based on the very principles of quantum mechanics. Researchers have proposed several approaches for user identity authentication via entanglement. Unfortunately, these protocols fail because an attacker can capture some of the particles in a transmitted sequence and send what is left to the receiver through a quantum channel. Subsequently, the attacker can restore some of the confidential messages, giving rise to the possibility of information leakage. Here we present a new robust General N user authentication protocol based on N-particle Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states, which makes eavesdropping detection more effective and secure, as compared to some current authentication protocols. The security analysis of our protocol for various kinds of attacks verifies that it is unconditionally secure, and that an attacker will not obtain any information about the transmitted key. Moreover, as the number of transferred key bits N becomes larger, while the number of users for transmitting the information is increased, the probability of effectively obtaining the transmitted authentication keys is reduced to zero.


quantum communication quantum cryptography quantum authentication entanglement 



J. Batle acknowledges fruitful discussions with Joana Rosselló, Maria del Mar Batle and Regina Batle.

Supplementary material

11467_2017_717_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.1 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 2121 KB.


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Farouk
    • 1
  • J. Batle
    • 3
  • M. Elhoseny
    • 1
  • Mosayeb Naseri
    • 4
  • Muzaffar Lone
    • 5
  • Alex Fedorov
    • 6
  • Majid Alkhambashi
    • 7
  • Syed Hassan Ahmed
    • 8
  • M. Abdel-Aty
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer and Information SciencesMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt
  2. 2.Applied Science University, Bahrain & Mathematics Dept. Sohag UniversitySohagEgypt
  3. 3.Departament de FísicaUniversitat de les Illes BalearsPalma de Mallorca, Balearic IslandsSpain
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsKermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityKermanshahIran
  5. 5.Department of PhysicsUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia
  6. 6.Russian Quantum CenterSkolkovo, MoscowRussia
  7. 7.Information Technology DepartmentAl-Zahra College for WomenMuscatOman
  8. 8.School of Computer Science & EngineeringKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea

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