Frontiers of Physics

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 609–629 | Cite as

Active galactic nuclei — the physics of individual sources and the cosmic history of formation and evolution

Review article Frontiers of Physics

Abstract

In this paper we give a brief review of the astrophysics of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). After a general introduction motivating the study of AGNs, we discuss our present understanding of the inner workings of the central engines, most likely accreting black holes with masses between 106 and 1010M. We highlight recent results concerning the jets (collimated outflows) of AGNs derived from X-ray observations (Chandra) of kpc-scale jets and γ-ray observations of AGNs (Fermi, Cherenkov telescopes) with jets closely aligned with the lines of sight (blazars), and discuss the interpretation of these observations. Subsequently, we summarize our knowledge about the cosmic history of AGN formation and evolution. We conclude with a description of upcoming observational opportunities.

Keywords

active galactic nuclei (AGNs) black hole accretion relativistic jets cosmological evolution 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and notes

  1. 1.
    J. Magorrian, S. Tremaine, D. Richstone, R. Bender, G. Bower, A. Dressler, S. M. Faber, K. Gebhardt, R. Green, C. Grillmair, J. Kormendy, and T. Lauer, Astron. J., 1998, 115(6): 2285ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Gültekin, D. O. Richstone, K. Gebhardt, T. R. Lauer, S. Tremaine, M. C. Aller, R. Bender, A. Dressler, S. M. Faber, A. V. Filippenko, R. Green, L. C. Ho, J. Kormendy, J. Magorrian, J. Pinkney, and C. Siopis, Astrophys. J., 2009, 698(1): 198ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Psaltis, Living Rev. Relativity, 2008, 11: 9, http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2008-9 ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, K. Asano, et al., Nature, 2009, 462(7271): 331ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. M. Taylor, I. Vovk, and A. Neronov, Astron. Astrophys., 2011, 529: A144ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. E. Broderick, P. Chang, and C. Pfrommer, Astrophys. J., 2012, 752(1): 22ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. D. Fields, S. Sarkar, et al., in: Review of Particle Physics, The Particle Data Group, 2012, 86: 275Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    X. Fan, C. L. Carilli, and B. Keating, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 2006, 44(1): 415ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Yao, J. M. Shull, Q. D. Wang, and W. Cash, Astrophys. J., 2012, 746(2): 166ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Meyer, M. Raue, D. Mazin, and D. Horns, Astron. Astrophys., 2012, 542: A59ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. A. Laing and A. H. Bridle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1987, 228: 557ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Finoguenov, M. Ruszkowski, C. Jones, M. Brüggen, A. Vikhlinin, and E. Mandel, Astrophys. J., 2008, 686(2): 911ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. della Ceca, G. Lamorani, T. Maccacaro, A. Wolter, R. Griffiths, J. T. Stocke, and G. Setti, Astrophys. J., 1994, 430: 533ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. I. Kellermann, R. C. Vermeulen, J. A. Zensus, and M. H. Cohen, Astron. J., 1998, 115(4): 1295ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. L. Marshall, B. P. Miller, D. S. Davis, E. S. Perlman, M. Wise, C. R. Canizares, and D. E. Harris, Astrophys. J., 2002, 564(2): 683ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. J. Hardcastle, R. P. Kraft, G. R. Sivakoff, J. L. Goodger, J. H. Croston, A. Jordán, D. A. Evans, D. M. Worrall, M. Birkinshaw, S. Raychaudhury, N. J. Brassington, W. R. Forman, W. E. Harris, C. Jones, A. M. Juett, S. S. Murray, P. E. J. Nulsen, C. L. Sarazin, and K. A. Woodley, Astrophys. J., 2007, 670(2): L81ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. D. Curtis, Publications of Lick Observatory, 1918, 13: 9ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Schmidt, Nature, 1963, 197(4872): 1040ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Tavecchio, L. Maraschi, R. M. Sambruna, and C. M. Urry, Astrophys. J., 2000, 544(1): L23ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Savolainen, D. C. Homan, T. Hovatta, M. Kadler, Y. Y. Kovalev, M. L. Lister, E. Ros, and J. A. Zensus, Astron. Astrophys., 2010, 512: A24ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. E. Harris and H. Krawczynski, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 2006, 44(1): 463ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. E. Harris and H. Krawczynski, Astrophys. J., 2002, 565(1): 244ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Atoyan and C. D. Dermer, Astrophys. J., 2004, 613(1): 151ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W. B. Atwood, et al., Science, 2010, 328(5979): 725ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Z. Yang, N. Sahakyan, E. de Ona Wilhelmi, F. Aharonian, and F. Rieger, Astron. Astrophys., 2012, 542: A19ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. C. Cheung, Astrophys. J., 2004, 600(1): L23ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Sikora and G. Madejski, Astrophys. J., 2000, 534(1): 109ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Celotti and A. C. Fabian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1993, 264: 228ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Ghisellini, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2012, 424(1): L26ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. Boehringer, et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1993, 264: L25ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. L. Carilli, R. A. Perley, and D. E. Harris, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1994, 270: 173ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. C. Fabian, J. S. Sanders, G. B. Taylor, S. W. Allen, C. S. Crawford, R. M. Johnstone, and K. Iwasawa, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2006, 366(2): 417ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    B. R. McNamara and P. E. J. Nulsen, New J. Phys., 2012, 14(5): 055023ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    L. Bîrzan, B. R. McNamara, P. E. J. Nulsen, C. L. Carilli, and M. W. Wise, Astrophys. J., 2008, 686(2): 859ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. J. Rees, Nature, 1971, 229(5283): 312ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. S. Longair, M. Ryle, and P. A. G. Scheuer, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1973, 164: 243ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. A. G. Scheuer, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1974, 166: 513ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. D. Blandford and M. J. Rees, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1974, 169: 395ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. A. Aloy and P. Mimica, in: Relativistic Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei, edited by M. Boettcher, D. E. Harris, and H. Krawczynski, Wiley-VCH, 2012: 297Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. C. McKinney, A. Tchekhovskoy, and R. D. Blandford, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2012, 423(4): 3083ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. C. McKinney and R. D. Blandford, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2009, 394(1): L126ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    L. Sironi and A. Spitkovsky, Astrophys. J., 2011, 726(2): 75ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. M. Urry and P. Padovani, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1995, 107: 803ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    B. Czerny and M. Elvis, Astrophys. J., 1987, 321: 305ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. Koratkar and O. Blaes, The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1999, 111(755): 1ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Ichimaru, Astrophys. J., 1977, 214: 840ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. Narayan, E. Quataert, I. V. Igumenshchev, and M. A. Abramowicz, Astrophys. J., 2002, 577(1): 295ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    G. Henri and P. O. Petrucci, Astron. Astrophys., 1997, 326: 87ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Malzac, et al., Astron. Astrophys., 1998, 336: 807ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. A. Galeev, R. Rosner, and G. S. Vaiana, Astrophys. J., 1979, 229: 318ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. C. Fabian, et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1989, 238: 729ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    C. S. Reynolds and M. A. Nowak, Phys. Rep., 2003, 377(6): 389ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. R. Ross and A. C. Fabian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2005, 358(1): 211ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. R. Ross and A. C. Fabian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2007, 381(4): 1697ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    L. W. Brenneman and C. S. Reynolds, Astrophys. J., 2006, 652(2): 1028ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    S. S. Doeleman, J. Weintroub, A. E. E. Rogers, R. Plambeck, et al., Nature, 2008, 455(7209): 78ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. P. Véron-Cetty and P. Véron, Astron. Astrophys. Rev., 2000, 10(1–2): 81ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    B. M. Peterson, in: The Central Engine of Active Galactic Nuclei, edited by Luis C. Ho and Jian-Min Wang, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2007, 373: 3ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. Kaspi, in: The Central Engine of Active Galactic Nuclei, edited by Luis C. Ho and Jian-Min Wang, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2007, 373: 13ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. Rawlings and R. Saunders, Nature, 1991, 349(6305): 138ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. Celotti, et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1997, 286: 415ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    L. Maraschi and F. Tavecchio, Astrophys. J., 2003, 593(2): 667ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    N. Kawakatu, T. Nagao, and J. H. Woo, Astrophys. J., 2009, 693(2): 1686ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Elitzur, in: The Central Engine of Active Galactic Nuclei, edited by Luis C. Ho and Jian-Min Wang, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2007, 373: 415ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. Nenkova, M. M. Sirocky, R. Nikutta, Ž. Ivezić, and M. Elitzur, Astrophys. J., 2008, 685(1): 160ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    D. Chelouche, in: The Central Engine of Active Galactic Nuclei, edited by Luis C. Ho and Jian-Min Wang, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2007, 373: 277ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. Stickel, J. W. Fried, H. Kuehr, P. Padovani, and C. M. Urry, Astrophys. J., 1991, 374: 431ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. T. Stocke, S. L. Morris, I. M. Gioia, T. Maccacaro, R. Schild, A. Wolter, T. A. Fleming, and J. P. Henry, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1991, 76: 813ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    G. Ghisellini, F. Tavecchio, L. Foschini, and G. Ghirlanda, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2011, 414(3): 2674ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    P. Giommi, P. Padovani, G. Polenta, S. Turriziani, V. D’Elia, and S. Piranomonte, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2012, 420(4): 2899ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    W. B. Atwood, A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, W. Althouse, et al., Astrophys. J., 2009, 697(2): 1071ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    F. Aharonian, J. Buckley, T. Kifune, and G. Sinnis, Rep. Prog. Phys., 2008, 71(9): 096901ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, et al.,, Astrophys. J., 2011, 736(2): 131ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, et al., Astrophys. J., 2011, 727(2): 129ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    P. L. Nolan, A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl., 2012, 199(2): 31ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. Ajello, M. S. Shaw, R. W. Romani, C. D. Dermer, L. Costamante, O. G. King, W. Max-Moerbeck, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, J. L. Richards, and M. Stevenson, Astrophys. J., 2012, 751(2): 108ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    G. Fossati, L. Maraschi, A. Celotti, A. Comastri, and G. Ghisellini, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1998, 299(2): 433ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    G. Ghisellini, A. Celotti, G. Fossati, L. Maraschi, and A. Comastri, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1998, 301(2): 451ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    H. Krawczynski, R. Sambruna, A. Kohnle, P. S. Coppi, et al., Astrophys. J., 2001, 559(1): 187ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. Konopelko, A. Mastichiadis, J. Kirk, O. C. de Jager, and F. W. Stecker, Astrophys. J., 2003, 597(2): 851ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. A. Gaidos, C. W. Akerlof, S. Biller, P. J. Boyle, et al., Nature, 1996, 383(6598): 319ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    F. Aharonian, A. G. Akhperjanian, A. R. Bazer-Bachi, B. Behera, et al., Astrophys. J., 2007, 664(2): L71ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    J. Albert, E. Aliu, H. Anderhub, P. Antoranz, et al., Astrophys. J., 2007, 669(2): 862ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    M. C. Begelman, A. C. Fabian, and M. J. Rees, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2008, 384(1): L19ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    V. A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, T. Aune, et al., Astrophys. J., 2011, 738(1): 25ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    J. Aleksić, E. A. Alvarez, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2012, 544: A142ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    H. Krawczynski, S. B. Hughes, D. Horan, F. Aharonian, M. F. Aller, H. Aller, P. Boltwood, J. Buckley, P. Coppi, G. Fossati, N. Gotting, J. Holder, D. Horns, O. M. Kurtanidze, A. P. Marscher, M. Nikolashvili, R. A. Remillard, A. Sadun, and M. Schroder, Astrophys. J., 2004, 601(1): 151ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Abramowski, et al. [HESS Collaboration], Astron. Astrophys., 2012, 539: A149Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    M. Georganopoulos and D. Kazanas, New Astron. Rev., 2004, 48(5–6): 403ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    G. Ghisellini, F. Tavecchio, and M. Chiaberge, Astron. Astrophys., 2005, 432(2): 401ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, I. Agudo, M. Ajello, et al., Astrophys. J., 2010, 716(1): 30ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    P. Giommi, G. Polenta, A. Lähteenmäki, D. J. Thompson, et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2012, 541: A160ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    G. Fossati, J. H. Buckley, I. H. Bond, S. M. Bradbury, et al., Astrophys. J., 2008, 677(2): 906ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    G. Ghirlanda, G. Ghisellini, F. Tavecchio, L. Foschini, and G. Bonnoli, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2011, 413(2): 852ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Angelakis, et al., Astrophys. J., 2011, 741(1): 30ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    E. Nieppola, M. Tornikoski, E. Valtaoja, J. León-Tavares, T. Hovatta, A. Lähteenmäki, and J. Tammi, Astron. Astrophys., 2011, 535: A69ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    H. Krawczynski, et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2000, 353: 97ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    A. P. Marscher, S. G. Jorstad, F. D. D’Arcangelo, P. S. Smith, et al., Nature, 2008, 452(7190): 966ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, M. Axelsson, et al., Nature, 2010, 463(7283): 919ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    J. G. Kirk and A. Mastichiadis, Astropart. Phys., 1999, 11(1–2): 45ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    T. Takahashi, J. Kataoka, G. Madejski, J. Mattox, et al., Astrophys. J., 2000, 542(2): L105ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    M. G. Garson, B. G. Baring, and H. Krawczynski, Astrophys. J., 2010, 722(1): 358ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    K. Mannheim, Astron. Astrophys., 1993, 269: 67ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    A. Mücke, R. J. Protheroe, R. Engel, J. P. Rachen, and T. Stanev, Astropart. Phys., 2003, 18(6): 593ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    F. A. Aharonian, New Astron., 2000, 5(7): 377ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    A. Reimer, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 2012, 355: 012011ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    M. Boettcher, arXiv: 1205.0539, 2012Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    P. F. Hopkins, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2012, 420: L8MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    N. I. Shakura and R. A. Sunyaev, Astron. Astrophys., 1973, 24: 337ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    D. N. Page and K. S. Thorne, Astrophys. J., 1974, 191: 499ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    S. A. Balbus and J. F. Hawley, Astrophys. J., 1991, 376: 214ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    R. Narayan and I. Yi, Astrophys. J., 1994, 428: L13ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    R. Narayan, I. V. Igumenshchev, and M. A. Abramowicz, Astrophys. J., 2000, 539(2): 798ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    E. Quataert and A. Gruzinov, Astrophys. J., 2000, 539(2): 809ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    R. D. Blandford and M. C. Begelman, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1999, 303(1): L1ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    M. C. Begelman, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2012, 420(4): 2912ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    R. D. Blandford and R. L. Znajek, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1977, 179: 433ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    S. C. Noble, J. H. Krolik, J. D. Schnittman, and J. F. Hawley, Astrophys. J., 2011, 743(2): 115ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    R. F. Penna, A. Sä Dowski, and J. C. McKinney, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2012, 420(1): 684ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    J. C. McKinney and R. Narayan, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2007, 375(2): 513ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    K. Beckwith, J. F. Hawley, and J. H. Krolik, Astrophys. J., 2008, 678(2): 1180ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    M. Rees, Proceedings of the Symposium, Bad Muen-Stereifel, West Germany, 1978, 1(1): 237Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    M. Volonteri, Astron. Astrophys. Rev., 2010, 18(3): 279ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    C. Willott, et al., Astron. J., 2010, 140: 546ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    D. Mortlock, S. J. Warren, B. P. Venemans, M. Patel, P. C. Hewett, R. G. McMahon, C. Simpson, T. Theuns, E. A. Gonzáles-Solares, A. Adamson, S. Dye, N. C. Hambly, P. Hirst, M. J. Irwin, E. Kuiper, A. Lawrence, and H. J. A. Röttgering, Nature, 2011, 474(7353): 616ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    V. Bromm and A. Loeb, Astrophys. J., 2003, 596(1): 34ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    B. Devecchi and M. Volonteri, Astrophys. J., 2009, 694(1): 302ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    D. Lynden-Bell, Nature, 1969, 223(5207): 690ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    A. Soltan, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1982, 200: 115ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    E. Treister, P. Natarajan, D. B. Sanders, C. M. Urry, K. Schawinski, and J. Kartaltepe, Science, 2010, 328(5978): 600ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    P. F. Hopkins and L. Hernquist, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 2006, 166(1): 1ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    R. Antonucci, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 1993, 31(1): 473ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    A. Lawrence, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1991, 252: 586ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    E. Treister and C. M. Urry, Astrophys. J., 2006, 652(2): L79ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    R. C. Hickox and M. Markevitch, Astrophys. J., 2006, 645(1): 95ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    R. Mushotzky, L. L. Cowie, A. J. Barger, and K. A. Arnaud, Nature, 2000, 404(6777): 459ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    G. Setti and L. Woltjer, Astron. Astrophys., 1989, 224: L21ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    E. Treister, C. M. Urry, and S. Virani, Astrophys. J., 2009, 696(1): 110ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    A. R. Draper and D. R. Ballantyne, Astrophys. J., 2009, 707(1): 778ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    D. Burlon, M. Ajello, J. Greiner, A. Comastri, A. Merloni, and N. Gehrels, Astrophys. J., 2011, 728(1): 58ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    E. Treister and C. M. Urry, Astrophys. J., 2005, 630(1): 115ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    R. Gilli, A. Comastri, and G. Hasinger, Astron. Astrophys., 2007, 463(1): 79ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    P. Salucci, E. Szuszkiewicz, P. Monaco, and L. Danese, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 1999, 307(3): 637ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Q. Yu and S. Tremaine, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2002, 335(4): 965ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    A. Marconi, G. Risaliti, R. Gilli, L. K. Hunt, R. Maiolino, and M. Salvati, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2004, 351(1): 169ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    F. Shankar, P. Salucci, G. L. Granato, G. De Zotti, and L. Danese, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2004, 354(4): 1020ADSGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    P. Natarajan and E. Treister, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2009, 393(3): 838ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    F. Shankar, D. H. Weinberg, and J. Miralda-Escudé, Astrophys. J., 2009, 690(1): 20ADSGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    E. Treister, K. Schawinski, M. Volonteri, P. Natarajan, and E. Gawiser, Nature, 2011, 474(7351): 356ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    L. L. Cowie, A. J. Barger, and G. Hasinger, arXiv: 1110.3326, 2011Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    C. J. Willott, Astrophys. J., 2011, 742(1): L8ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    M. Volonteri, F. Haardt, and P. Madau, Astrophys. J., 2003, 582(2): 559ADSGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    M. Volonteri and N. Y. Gnedin, Astrophys. J., 2009, 703(2): 2113ADSGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    M. Volonteri and M. C. Begelman, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2010, 409(3): 1022ADSGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    P. Natarajan, Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India, 2011, 39: 145ADSGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist, Nature, 2005, 433(7026): 604ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    J. E. Barnes and L. E. Hernquist, Astrophys. J., 1991, 370: L65ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    D. Sanders, B. T. Soifer, J. H. Elias, B. F. Madore, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, and N. Z. Scoville, Astrophys. J., 1988, 325: 74ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    M.M. De Robertis, H. K. C. Yee, and K. Hayhoe, Astrophys. J., 1998, 496(1): 93ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    B. Moore, N. Katz, G. Lake, A. Dressler, and A. Oemler, Nature, 1996, 379(6566): 613ADSGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    J. Kormendy and C. Kennicutt, Jr., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 2004, 42(1): 603ADSGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    R. Finn, C. D. Impey, and E. J. Hooper, Astrophys. J., 2001, 557(2): 578ADSGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    P. Hopkins and L. Hernquist, Astrophys. J., 2009, 694(1): 599ADSGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    E. Treister, K. Schawinski, C. M. Urry, and B. D. Simmons, Astrophys. J., 2012, 758(2): L39ADSGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    D. Darg, S. Kaviraj, C. J. Lintott, K. Schawinski, M. Sarzi, S. Bamford, J. Silk, D. Andreescu, P. Murray, R. C. Nichol, M. J. Raddick, A. Slosar, A. S. Szalay, D. Thomas, and J. Vandenberg, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2010, 401(3): 1552ADSGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    J. Aird, K. Nandra, E. S. Laird, A. Georgakakis, M. L. N. Ashby, P. Barmby, A. L. Coil, J.S. Huang, A. M. Koekemoer, C. C. Steidel, and C. N. A. Willmer, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2010, 401(4): 2531ADSGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Y. Ueda, M. Akiyama, K. Ohta, and T. Miyaji, Astrophys. J., 2003, 598(2): 886ADSGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    G. Kauffmann and M. Haehnelt, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2000, 311(3): 576ADSGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    T. Dahlen, B. Mobasher, M. Dickinson, H. C. Ferguson, M. Giavalisco, C. Kretchmer, and S. Ravindranath, Astrophys. J., 2007, 654(1): 172ADSGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    M. Cisternas, K. Jahnke, K. J. Inskip, J. Kartaltepe, et al., Astrophys. J., 2011, 726(2): 57ADSGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    K. Schawinski, E. Treister, C. M. Urry, C. N. Cardamone, B. Simmons, and S. K. Yi, Astrophys. J., 2011, 727(2): L31ADSGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    D. Kocevski, S. M. Faber, M. Mozena, A. M. Koekemoer, et al., Astrophys. J., 2012, 744: 148ADSGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    L. Yao, E. R. Seaquist, N. Kuno, and L. Dunne, Astrophys. J., 2003, 588(2): 771ADSGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    E. Treister, C. M. Urry, K. Schawinski, C. N. Cardamone, and D. B. Sanders, Astrophys. J., 2010, 722(2): L238ADSGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    S. Doeleman, in: Proceedings of the 10th European VLBI Network Symposium and EVN Users Meeting: VLBI and the new generation of radio arrays, September 20–24, 2010. Manchester, UK. Published online at http://pos.sissa.it/cgi-bin/reader/conf.cgi?confid=125,id.53, 2010Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    D. Ballantyne, A. R. Draper, K. K. Madsen, J. R. Rigby, and E. Treister, Astrophys. J., 2011, 736(1): 56ADSGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    T. Takahashi, et al., in: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, 2010, 7732: 77320ZGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    M. Beilicke, et al., SPIE Proceedings, 2011, 8145: 240ADSGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    M. Pearce, et al., arXiv: 1106.1322, 2011Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    H. Krawczynski, Astrophys. J., 2012, 744(1): 30ADSGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    J. R. Gair, A. Sesana, E. Berti, and M. Volonteri, Class. Quant. Grav., 2011, 28(9): 094018ADSGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    X. Barcons, Probing the growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift with IXO, 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 2010, 38: 2359ADSGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    J. Black, et al., in: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, 2010, 7732: 77320XGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    M. Actis, G. Agnetta, F. Aharonian, A. Akhperjanian, et al., Exp. Astron., 2011, 32(3): 193ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics DepartmentWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Departamento de AstronomíaUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile

Personalised recommendations