Zhu Xi’s choice, historical criticism and influence—An analysis of Zhu Xi’s relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism
As a great synthesist for the School of Principles of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties, Zhu Xi’s influence over the School of Principles was demonstrated not only through his positive theoretical creation, but also through his choice and critical awareness. Zhu’s relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism is a typical case; and his activities, ranging from his research of Buddhism (the Chan School) in his early days to his farewell to the Chan School as a student of Li Dong from Yanping and then to his critical awareness of the Chan School, developed in his association with Wang Yingchen, set the entire course of his relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism. It fostered his antagonistic attitude towards the Chan School, which lasted his entire life. Zhu approached the Chan School mainly as an objective social and cultural phenomenon; his discrimination between Confucianism and Buddhism was from an epistemological point of view; and his refutation of the Chan School was mainly from the point of view of language and methodology, an antagonistic attitude of how to face learning. Therefore, his opposition to the Chan School not only directly fostered an awareness of the Confucians of the Ming dynasty against Buddhism, who simply viewed the latter as an external and objective existence, but to a certain extent resulted in the disappearance of the transcendence of the School of Principles, and caused a total change in academic direction during the Ming and Qing dynasties and the formation of the Qianjia Hanxue. What is more, such an opposition to Buddhism continues to influence people’s understanding of the School of Principles.
KeywordsZhu Xi choice criticism historical influence relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Chen Lai (2000). Zhuzi Zhexue Yanjiu 朱子哲学研究 (Research on Zhu Xi’s Philosophy). Shanghai: Huadong Shifan Daxue ChubansheGoogle Scholar
- Li Jingde (1986). Zhuzi Yulei 朱子语类 (Quotations of Zhu Xi). Beijing: Zhonghua ShujuGoogle Scholar
- Liu Jishan (1985). Ming Ru Xuean 明儒学案 (Academic Cases of Confucians of the Ming Dynasty). Beijing: Zhonghua ShujuGoogle Scholar
- Luo Qinshun (1990). Kun Zhi Ji 困知记 (Records the Seeking of Knowledge in Perplexity). Beijing: Zhonghua ShujuGoogle Scholar
- Mou Zongsan (1969). Xinti yu Xingti 心体与性体 (The Form of Mind and the Form of Nature). Taibei: Zhengzhong ShujuGoogle Scholar
- Qian Mu (1986). Zhuzi Xin Xuean 朱子新学案 (A New Academic Case of Zhu Xi). Chengdu: Bashu ShusheGoogle Scholar
- Shu Jingnan (2001). Zhu Xi Nianpu Changbian 朱熹年谱长编 (A Full-Ranged Chronicle of Zhu Xi’s Life). Shanghai: Huadong Shifan Daxue ChubansheGoogle Scholar
- Wang Maohong (1998). Zhu Xi Nianpu 朱熹年谱 (A Chronicle of Zhu Xi’s Life). Beijing: Zhonghua ShujuGoogle Scholar
- Wang Shouren (1992). Wang Yangming Quanji 王阳明全集 (Complete Collection of Wang Yangming). Shanghai: Shanghai Guji ChubansheGoogle Scholar
- Zhu Xi (1996). Zhu Xi Ji 朱熹集 (Collected Works of Zhu Xi). Chengdu: Sichuan Jiaoyu ChubansheGoogle Scholar