A formal treatment of the causative constructions in Chinese
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There are at least five kinds of causative constructions in Chinese, the constructions of the collocation of verbs and prepositional phrases, verb-copying constructions, “ba” constructions with an object ahead, verb-copying constructions with their complements, and pivotal constructions with commands. But the current type-logical grammar has no tools representing the meanings of causative constructions. It would be neither intuitive nor simple to describe these constructions by means of the current type-logical grammar. So we intend to improve the type-logical grammar by adding CAUSE as a logical constant, complementing the structure rules about the movement and addition or deletion of some components of causative constructions, assigning categories to Chinese nouns and prepositions; then we give an intuitive as well as simple analysis on these causative constructions. Based on this work we shall extend the multimodal system of type-logical grammar, increase structure postulates, make constraints on frame semantics, and then prove the soundness and completeness of that system.
Keywordscausative constructions type-logical grammar multimodal system
汉语致使句式至少表现为五种形式: 动词和介词短语搭配的句子; 动词多次出现的重动句; 宾语前置的 “把” 字句; 重动动补句和使令类兼语句。 而通常的类 型—逻辑语义学则没有表现致使涵义的工具; 采用高阶逻辑手段表现汉语致使句式显得不够直观简洁, 并且不便分析汉语的重动致使句。 对类型—逻辑语法的工具进行改进: 增添逻辑常项 CAUSE; 补充关于致使句组成成分移动增减的结构规则; 给出汉语名词和介词的范畴指派; 可获得关于汉语致使句式的直观简洁的类型—逻辑语法分析。 据此对类型-逻辑语法的多模态系统进行扩展, 增加结构公设和框架语义限制, 确立系统的完全性。
关键词致使句式 类型-逻辑语法 多模态系统
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