Advertisement

Frontiers of History in China

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 276–291 | Cite as

Agricultural reclamation policy and environmental changes in the northwest China during the Qing dynasty

  • Zhao Zhen Email author
Research Article

Abstract

Northwest China, including the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, and a small part of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, was not only one of the earliest developed areas in history, but also one of the most ecologically fragile belts. The traditionally sustainable land reclamation and cultivation policies for the development of an agricultural economy adopted and implemented in administrations during different periods of the Qing dynasty, greatly raised farming and stock production. However, this led to imbalances in the originally fragile ecological environment. The negative effects such as rapidly expanding desertification, worsening water and soil erosions, increased cost of production, enlarged investment, vicious cycles and failing economy can serve as a lesson for contemporary development.

Keywords

Northwest China Qing dynasty reclamation and cultivation ecological changes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Chang Jun. 1990. Dunhuang suibi (Jottings of Dunhuang), Vol.2, “Tuntian,” In Series of Documents of Northwest China, compiled by Editorial Committee of Series of Documents of Northwest China.Google Scholar
  2. Chen Hongmou. “Maxims of Administering Officials by Chen Gongshen, General Governor of Shaanxi.” In The Gazetteer of Zhen’an County, Vol.10 “Articles of Art”, the block-printed edition of the 20th year of Emperor Qianlong’s reign.Google Scholar
  3. Dong Zongsheng. “The Record Edition of Shunzhi’s Reign”, written on the 19th day of the 1st month of the 11th year of Shunzhi Reign, collected in China No. 1 Museum of History and Archives.Google Scholar
  4. Gu Jiegang. 1997. “A Record of Opening Hetao by Wang Tongchun”. Yu Gong, Issue 12, Vol. 2.Google Scholar
  5. Guo Songyi and Zhang Zexian. 1997. Zhongguo tuntian shi (A history of Chinese Garrisoned Cultivation), Wenjin Press.Google Scholar
  6. Huang Shijian. 1964. “The Policy for ‘Transferring Immigrants to Strengthen the Frontier’ in Inner Mongolia by the Qing Government in the late Qing Dynasty”, Journal of Inner Mongolia University, Vol. 2.Google Scholar
  7. Se Yin. 1998. The Change of Mongolian Nomadic Society, Inner Mongolia People’s Press.Google Scholar
  8. Wang Zhe. “Anecdote by Mr. Wang Tongchun”, Yugong, Vol.4, No.7.Google Scholar
  9. Yan Ruyu. 1935. “sansheng shannei fengtu zashi” (Miscellaneous records of local customs in the mountain areas of the three provinces). In Shao Lizi, Guanzhong congshu (Series of the central shaanxi plain). Shaanxi Tongyin Printing House.Google Scholar
  10. Yan Ruyu. 1822. “Sansheng bianfang beilan” (A survey of border defense of three provinces), Vol. 14: “Yiwen zhi.” block-printed edition Daoguang 2.Google Scholar
  11. Yi Gu. Early republic. “Mengken chengsu gongzhuang” (An appeal on Mongolia farming), the printed edition of the early years of People’s Republic of China.Google Scholar
  12. Zhang Pengfei. 1935. Views of Water Conservancy in the Central Shaanxi Plain, In Shao Lizi, Series of the Central Shaanxi Plain. Shaanxi Tongyin Printing House.Google Scholar
  13. Zuo Zongtang. 1996. Zuo Zongtang quanji (The complete collections of Zuo Zongtang),” “Memorial Manuscripts”, Yuelu book house.Google Scholar
  14. Da Qing huidian shili [Guangxu] (Cases of collected constitutes of the grand Qing from the Guangxu period).Google Scholar
  15. A General Gazetteer of Gansu Province, Vol. 13: Contributions and Taxes, the printed edition of Qianlong 1 (1736).Google Scholar
  16. A General Gazetteer of Gansu Province [the Republic of China], Vol. 35: Civil Administration 5, the section of “disaster relief”.Google Scholar
  17. A General Gazetteer of Gansu Province [the Republic of China], Vol. 120: Record 5, the section of “the Qing”.Google Scholar
  18. The Gazetteer of Gulang County [Qianlong], In Series of Local Gazetteers of China, No. 560.Google Scholar
  19. Local Gazetteer of Shenmu, Vol. 1: Territory of Frontier Possession. In Xiangtu zhi congbian (The Collection of Local Gazetteers), Vol. 1. stereotyped edition of the 26th year of the Republic of China (1937).Google Scholar
  20. The Gazetteer of Hanzhong Prefecture [Jiaqing], Vol.1: The Views of Huayang Diagram.Google Scholar
  21. The Gazetteer of Jingbian County, Vol. 4: Articles of Arts.Google Scholar
  22. The Gazetteer of Zhen’an County. Vol.7 “Articles of Art”. the Junxuezhai block-printed edition of Qianlong 20.Google Scholar
  23. The Gazetteer of Zhenfan County [Qianlong]. In Zhongguo fangzhi cengshu (Series of Local Gazetteers of China) “North China,” No.560. Chengwen Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  24. The Gazetteer of Zhenfan County [Daoguang], Vol.3, “Tianfu kao”, the section of “Hukou”. Daoguang 5.Google Scholar
  25. The Gazetteer of Zhuanlang County, Vol.7: Land Taxes. Qianlong 34, No.335.Google Scholar
  26. Hetao tuzhi (The Illustrated Gazetteer of Hetao), stereotyped edition of the 11th year of the Republic of China (1922).Google Scholar
  27. The Revised Gazetteer of the Suzhou Prefecture [Qianlong], “Suzhou:” “Tuntian”, block-printed edition, Qianlong 2 (1737).Google Scholar
  28. Suicheng:Shuili lue (An outline of water conservancy), stereotyped edition of Shanghai Taidong Books Press, 1921.Google Scholar
  29. Veritable records of the emperor Gaozong of the Qing, Vol.293, the 6th month of Qianlong 12.Google Scholar
  30. Veritable records of the emperor Gaozong of the Qing, Vol.329, the 11th month of Qianlong 13.Google Scholar
  31. Veritable records of the emperor Shengzu of the Qing, Vol.277, the 2nd month of Kangxi 57.Google Scholar
  32. Veritable records of the emperor Shizong of the Qing, Vol. 123, the 9th month of Yongzheng 10.Google Scholar
  33. Veritable records of the emperor Shizong of the Qing, Vol. 76, the 12th month of Yongzheng 6.Google Scholar
  34. Veritable records of the Emperor Xuanzong of the Qing, Vol. 10, the 12th month of Jiaqing 25.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of History, School of HumanitiesRenmin University of ChinaBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations