Acta Geotechnica

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 225–246 | Cite as

Effectiveness of deep cement mixing walls with top-down construction for deep excavations in soft clay: case study and 3D simulation

  • Pitthaya JamsawangEmail author
  • Panich Voottipruex
  • Pornpot Tanseng
  • Pornkasem Jongpradist
  • Dennes T. Bergado
Research Paper


This paper presents the observed and simulated effectiveness of deep cement mixing walls created using top-down (DCM-TD) construction techniques for a deep excavation in soft Bangkok clay. The wall system consisted of four rows of 0.7-m-diameter DCM columns, and the bracing system consisted of two 0.25-m-thick basement slabs and seven temporary struts. The effectiveness of the wall system compared to that of other wall systems was evaluated using the measured results of previous case studies. A 3D numerical analysis was performed to calculate forces in the basement slabs and bending moments in the DCM wall. Finally, series of parametric analyses of both DCM-TD and deep cement mixing walls created using bottom-up (DCM-BU) construction techniques were carried out, and their results were compared to highlight the effectiveness of DCM-TD and its applicability to excavations at greater depths. The field and numerical results show that DCM-TD is more effective than DCM-BU in terms of the limitations of lateral wall movement, the bending moment in a DCM wall and the thickness of a DCM wall for various depths because of a larger system stiffness. Therefore, DCM-TD is very effective and suitable for use in potential future deep excavations in urban areas.


Deep excavation Deep mixing Finite element Simulation Top-down construction in three dimensions Wall 



This research was funded by King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok under Contract No. KMUTNB-GOV-59-03. The authors also extend their appreciation to the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) under Basic Research Grant No. BRG6080011.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pitthaya Jamsawang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Panich Voottipruex
    • 2
  • Pornpot Tanseng
    • 3
  • Pornkasem Jongpradist
    • 4
  • Dennes T. Bergado
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Soil Engineering Research CenterKing Mongkut’s University of Technology North BangkokBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Teacher Training in Civil EngineeringKing Mongkut’s University of Technology North BangkokBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringSuranaree University of TechnologyNakhon RatchasimaThailand
  4. 4.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand
  5. 5.School of Engineering and TechnologyAsian Institute of TechnologyKhlong NuengThailand

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