# Kinematic bending of single piles in layered soil

- 210 Downloads
- 1 Citations

## Abstract

A continuum solution is proposed for the kinematic bending of single piles embedded in a layered soil deposit. A displacement model is proposed to represent the displacement of the model of interest incorporating soil–pile interaction. The displacement functions and the attenuation function are obtained in the coupled form by means of Hamilton’s principle. Then an iterative procedure is applied to solve the coupled functions. The contributions of the proposed model are threefold: (1) The continuity of the Winkler springs is considered. (2) The effects of the inertial force of the surrounding soil on the kinematic response of the piles are taken into account. (3) An improved formula is proposed for the kinematic pile bending strain at the interface of two-layer soil deposit. A parametric study is performed to investigate the influence of the soil inhomogeneity on the kinematic bending of single piles. The results highlight that the stiffness discontinuity significantly influences the kinematic bending of single piles. There is a critical depth considering the effect of the pile head estimated as a non-dimensional length of the pile.

## Keywords

Kinematic bending Layered soil Single piles Soil–pile interaction## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The study was supported by the Technology Project of Department of Transportation of China under Grant No. 2013 318 798 320 and the Technology Project of Transportation of Hunan Province under Grant No. 2012 19. The second author appreciates the Funding by Open Research Fund Program of Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Geotechnical Engineering for Stability Control and Health Monitoring of Hunan University of Science and Technology.

## References

- 1.Blaney GW, Kausel E, Roesset JM (1976) Dynamic stiffness of piles. In: Proceedings in 2nd international conference on numerical methods in geomechanics, Blacksburg, VA, ASCE, pp 1010–1012Google Scholar
- 2.Chidichimo A, Cairo R, Dente G, Taylor CA, Mylonakis G (2014) 1-g experimental investigation of bi-layer soil response and kinematic pile bending. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 67:219–232Google Scholar
- 3.de Sanctis L, Maiorano RMS, Aversa S (2010) A method for assessing kinematic bending moments at the pile head. Earthq Eng Struct D 39(10):1133–1154Google Scholar
- 4.Dezi F, Poulos H (2017) Kinematic bending moments in square pile groups. Int J Geomech 17(3):04016066Google Scholar
- 5.Dezi F, Carbonari S, Leoni G (2009) A model for the 3D kinematic interaction analysis of pile groups in layered soils. Earthq Eng Struct D 38(11):1281–1305Google Scholar
- 6.Dezi F, Carbonari S, Leoni G (2010) Kinematic bending moments in pile foundations. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 30(3):119–132Google Scholar
- 7.Dezi F, Carbonari S, Morici M (2016) A numerical model for the dynamic analysis of inclined pile groups. Earthq Eng Struct D 45(1):45–68Google Scholar
- 8.Di Laora R, Mandolini A, Mylonakis G (2012) Insight on kinematic bending of flexible piles in layered soil. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 43(12):309–322Google Scholar
- 9.Di Laora R, Mylonakis G, Mandolini A (2013) Pile-head kinematic bending in layered soil. Earthq Eng Struct D 42(2):319–337Google Scholar
- 10.Dobry R, O’Rourke M (1983) Discussion on seismic response of end bearing piles. J Geotech Eng ASCE 109(5):778–781Google Scholar
- 11.Dobry R, Oweis I, Urzua A (1976) Simplified procedures for estimating the fundamental period of a soil profile. Bull Seismol Soc Am 66(4):1293–1321Google Scholar
- 12.Fan K, Gazetas G, Kaynia A, Kausel E, Ahmad S (1991) Kinematic seismic response of single piles and pile groups. J Geotech Eng ASCE 117(12):1860–1879Google Scholar
- 13.Gazetas G (1984) Seismic response of end-bearing piles. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 3(2):82–93Google Scholar
- 14.Gazetas G, Fan K, Tazoh T, Shimizu K, Kawadas M, Makris N (1992) Seismic pile group structure interaction. In: Prakash S (ed) Piles under dynamic loads. Special Publication, London, pp 56–93Google Scholar
- 15.Kavvads M, Gazetas G (1993) Kinematic seismic response and bending of free-head piles in layered soil. Géotechnique 43(2):207–222Google Scholar
- 16.Kaynia A, Kausel E (1991) Dynamics of piles and pile groups in layered soil media. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 10(8):386–401Google Scholar
- 17.Liu Q, Deng F, He Y (2014) Transverse seismic kinematics of single piles by a modified Vlasov mode. Int J Numer Anal Methods 38(18):1953–1968Google Scholar
- 18.Maiorano RMS, de Sanctis L, Aversa S, Mandolini A (2009) Kinematic response analysis of piled foundations under seismic excitation. Can Geotech J 46(5):571–584Google Scholar
- 19.Margason E (1975) Pile bending during earthquakes. ASCE-UC/Berkeley seminar on design construction and performance of deep foundationsGoogle Scholar
- 20.Martinelli M, Burghignoli A, Callisto L (2016) Dynamic response of a pile embedded into a layered soil. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 87:16–28Google Scholar
- 21.Mylonakis G (2001) Simplified model for seismic pile bending at soil-layer interfaces. Soils Found 41(4):47–58Google Scholar
- 22.Naggar EI, Ali Shayanfar M, Kimiaei M (2005) Simplified BDWF model for nonlinear seismic response analysis of offshore piles with nonlinear input ground motion analysis. Can Geotech J 42(2):365–380Google Scholar
- 23.Nikolaou S, Mylonakis G, Gazetas G, Tazoh T (2001) Kinematic pile bending during earthquakes: analysis and field measurements. Géotechnique 51(5):425–440Google Scholar
- 24.Papazoglou A, Elnashai A (1996) Analytical and field evidence of the damaging effect of vertical earthquake ground motion. Earthq Eng Struct D 25(10):1109–1137Google Scholar
- 25.Roesset J, Whitman R, Dobry R (1973) Modal analysis for structures with foundation interaction. J Struct Div 99(3):399–416Google Scholar
- 26.Rovithis E, Mylonakis G, Pitilakis K (2013) Dynamic stiffness and kinematic response of single piles in inhomogeneous soil. Bull Earthq Eng 11(6):1949–1972Google Scholar
- 27.Saitoh M (2010) Effect of local nonlinearity in cohesionless soil on optimal radius minimizing fixed-head pile bending by inertial and kinematic interactions. Acta Geotech 5(4):273–286Google Scholar
- 28.Sica S, Mylonakis G, Simonelli AL (2011) Transient kinematic pile bending in two-layer soil. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 31(7):891–905Google Scholar
- 29.Sun K (1994) Laterally loaded piles in elastic media. J Geotech Eng ASCE 120(8):1324–1344Google Scholar
- 30.Vallabhan CVG, Das YC (1988) Parametric study of beams on elastic foundations. J Eng Mech ASCE 114(12):2072–2082Google Scholar
- 31.Wang R, Liu X, Zhang J (2017) Numerical analysis of the seismic inertial and kinematic effects on pile bending moment in liquefiable soils. Acta Geotech 12(4):773–791Google Scholar