Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 59, Issue 32, pp 4359–4366 | Cite as

Precipitation of rutile needles in garnet from sillimanite-bearing pelitic granulite from the Khondalite Belt, North China Craton

  • Longlong GouEmail author
  • Chengli Zhang
  • Lifei Zhang
  • Quan Wang
Article Geology


Pelitic granulite from the Khondalite Belt, North China Craton, is composed of garnet, sillimanite, perthite, biotite and quartz. Oriented rutile needles in garnet are reported for the first time from the granulite. The rutile needles have been identified by optical microscopy and confirmed by in situ Raman spectroscopy, where they show the characteristic bands at 446–448 and 610 cm−1. Because of their very strong shape preferred orientation in 3–4 easily observable directions, these rutile needles are interpreted to have formed by precipitation during exhumation and cooling following peak metamorphism. The ternary feldspar geothermometer gives a peak metamorphic temperature of ~ 980 °C at 10 kbar. The presence of oriented rutile needles in garnet is suggested to be a valuable indicator of ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism in the Khondalite Belt and therefore likely in other UHT terrains.


Oriented rutile needles in garnet Precipitation UHT metamorphism Khondalite Belt North China Craton 



This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB416606), MOST Special Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, the Natural Science (NJ13032) and Start-up Research (PR12104) Foundations of Northwest University, and Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Shaanxi Provincial Government (14JK1733). The first author appreciates the fund for his one year study at the University of Maryland as a visiting scholar from the Young Teaching Staff Cultivation Project of the Department of Geology, Northwest University. Thanks are given to two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped to improve the manuscript, Prof. Michael Brown for his improvements on English writing, Yi Cao for his constructive discussions, Wenqiang Yang for his help during Raman analyses, and Minwu Liu for his help during electron microprobe analyses.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11434_2014_598_MOESM1_ESM.docx (54 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 53 kb)


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Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Longlong Gou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chengli Zhang
    • 1
  • Lifei Zhang
    • 3
  • Quan Wang
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of GeologyNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Crustal Petrology, Department of GeologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, Ministry of Education, School of Earth and Space SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Institute of Shanxi Geological SurveyTaiyuanChina

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