Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 59, Issue 2, pp 212–221 | Cite as

The terraced thermal contrast among the Tibetan Plateau, the East Asian plain, and the western North Pacific and its impacts on the seasonal transition of East Asian climate

Article Atmospheric Science

Abstract

The heating sources over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the East Asian plain, and the western North Pacific (WNP) form a terraced thermal contrast in the west-east direction. Over East Asia and the WNP, this zonal thermal contrast contributes as high as 45 % to the seasonal variance based on the EOF analysis and exerts a significant impact on the seasonal transition of the East Asian climate through the enhancement of the year-round southerly to the southeast of the TP in late March and early April. This effect is investigated in this study using a high-resolution regional atmospheric model by doubling the surface sensible heat flux, respectively, over the TP, the East Asian plain, and the WNP in three sensitivity experiments. Comparisons among the experiments reveal that doubling the surface sensible heat flux over the WNP has little upstream response over East Asia. The increased zonal thermal contrast between the TP and the East Asian plain due to doubled heat flux over the TP would induce anomalous northerly over the region with year-round southerly to the southeast of the TP and weaken its seasonal enhancement. Doubling the surface sensible heat flux over the East Asian plain decreases the zonal thermal contrast and leads to southerly anomaly over the region with year-round southerly to the southeast of the TP and South China, which is favorable for the enhancement of the year-round southerly and its eastward extension.

Keywords

Terraced thermal contrast Year-round southerly Tibetan Plateau East Asian plain Western North Pacific 

References

  1. 1.
    Qi L, He JH (2011) Seasonal evolution features of the southerly wind over the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Plateau Meteorol 30:1139–1147 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Webster PJ, Yang S (1992) Monsoon and ENSO: selectively interactive systems. Q J R Meteorol Soc 118:877–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ding YH, Jiang Y (1998) Relationship between Asian monsoon activities and the precipitation over China mainland. J Appl Meteorol Sci S1:84–89 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhu CW, He JH, Wu GX (2000) East Asian monsoon index and its inter-annual relationship with larger scale thermal dynamic circulation. Acta Meteorol Sinica 58:391–402 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    He JH, Ding YH, Gao H et al (2001) South China Sea summer monsoon onset data and monsoon index. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, pp 1–116Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu GX, Liu Y, Zhu X et al (2009) Multi-scale forcing and the formation of subtropical desert and monsoon. Ann Geophys 27:3631–3644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Qi L, He JH, Zhang ZQ et al (2008) Seasonal cycle of the zonal land–sea thermal contrast and East Asian subtropical monsoon circulation. Chin Sci Bull 53:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang B, Zhou XJ, Chen LX et al (2010) An East Asian land–sea atmospheric heat source difference index and its relation to general circulation and summer rainfall over China. Sci China Earth Sci 53:1734–1746Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhu YF, Zhang B, Chen LX (2010) Thermal difference between the Tibetan Plateau and the plain east of Plateau and its influence on rainfall over China in the summer. Chin Sci Bull 55:1437–1444Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang Y, Sen OL, Wang B (2003) A highly resolved regional climate model (IPRC-RegCM) and its simulation of the 1998 severe precipitation event over China. Part I: Model description and verification of simulation. J Clim 16:1721–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang Y, Leung LR, McGregor JL et al (2004) Regional climate modeling: progress, challenges and prospects. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 82:1599–1628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang Y, Zhou L, Hamilton KP (2007) Effect of convective entrainment/detrainment on simulation of tropical precipitation diurnal cycle. Mon Weather Rev 135:367–385Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sen OL, Wang Y, Wang B (2004) Impact of Indochina deforestation on the East Asian summer monsoon. J Clim 17:1366–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu HM, Xie SP, Wang YQ et al (2008) Orographic effects on South China Sea summer climate. Meteorol Atmos Phys 100:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Souma K, Wang Y (2009) Improved simulation of the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall with satellite-derived snow water equivalent data. Mon Weather Rev 137:1790–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Souma K, Wang Y (2010) A comparison between the effects of snow albedo and infiltration of melting water of Eurasian snow on East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2009JD012189 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qi L, Wang Y (2012) The effect of mesoscale mountain over the East Indochina Peninsula on downstream summer rainfall over East Asia. J Clim 25:4495–4510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R et al (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:437–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yanai M, Esbensen S, Chu JH (1973) Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets. J Atmos Sci 30:611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Reynolds RW, Smith TM, Liu CY et al (2007) Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J Clim 20:5473–5496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adler RF, Huffman GJ, Bolvin DT et al (2000) Tropical rainfall distributions determined using TRMM combined with other satellite and rain gauge information. J Appl Meteorol 39:2007–2023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    North GR, Bell TL, Cahalan RF et al (1982) Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Mon Weather Rev 110:699–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang ZY, Ding YH (2008) Climatic characteristics of rainy seasons in China. Chin J Atmos Sci 32:1–13 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of EducationNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.International Pacific Research Center and Department of MeteorologyUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHawaiiUSA

Personalised recommendations