Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 57, Issue 13, pp 1483–1487 | Cite as

High genetic diversity of Tibetan Mastiffs revealed by mtDNA sequences

  • Yan Li
  • YaPing ZhangEmail author
Open Access
Letter Animal Genetics


Many studies have been reported the origin and evolution of domesticated animals, particularly dogs, however, few have systematically examined the Tibetan Mastiff (TM), a dog that lives primarily in the Qing-Tibet Plateau. Here, we study the origin and evolution of TM based on the population comparison of mtDNA D-loop sequences from TM and other dogs across the world. Intriguingly, non-simultaneous arrivals of Tibetan Mastiffs ancestors to Tibet occurred, which may result from continuous Tibetans’ settlement on Qing-Tibet Plateau supported by archaeological and genetic evidence. High genetic and haplotype diversity and robust haplotypes sharing with other dogs unique to East Asia are observed in Tibetan Mastiff, supporting that it is a very archaic breed derived probably from East Asia.


Tibetan Mastiff genetic diversity mitochondrial 

Supplementary material

11434_2012_4995_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (449 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 448 KB.


  1. 1.
    Ding Z L, Oskarsson M, Ardalan A, et al. Heredity, 2011, doi: 10.1038/hdy.2011.114Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pang J F, Kluetsch C, Zou X J, et al. Mol Biol Evol, 2009, 26: 2849–2864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Savolainen P, Zhang Y P, Luo J, et al. Science, 2002, 298: 1610–1613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    von Holdt B M, Pollinger J P, Lohmueller K E, et al. Nature, 2010, 464: 898–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miklosi A. Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leonard J A, Wayne R K, Wheeler J, et al. Science, 2002, 298: 1613–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Savolainen P, Leitner T, Wilton A N, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2004, 101: 12387–12390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhao M, Kong Q P, Wang H W, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2009, 106: 21230–21235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cui T B, Guo X. A Monograph of Tibetan Mastiff in China. Shanghai: Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers, 2009Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rohrer A, Larsen L. The Tibetan Mastiff book: A Short Comprehensive Study of the Tibetan Mastiff in the United States. Llano, California: Anlin Associates, 1981Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ni Z. The Real Tibetan Mastiff. Beijing: China Youth Press, 2004Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li Q, Liu Z, Li Y, et al. J Genet Genomics, 2008, 35: 335–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Polo M. The Travels of Marco Polo. Beijing: Chinese Literature and History Press, 1998Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li Y, Li Q, Zhao X, et al. Animal, 2006, 5: 1–8Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vila C, Maldonado J, Amorim I R, et al. Science, 1997, 276: 1687–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ye J H, Ren D R, Xie A F, et al. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci, 2009, 22: 1102–1106Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lan X, Guo X, Zhang M, et al. J Anhui Agri Sci, 2010, 38: 4954–4955, 4966Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lan X, Guo X, Chen Y, et al. J Henan Agri Sci, 2010, 1: 110–112Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Altschul S F, Madden T L, Schäffer A A, et al. Nucleic Acids Res, 1997, 25: 3389–3402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Librado P, Rozas J. Bioinformatics, 2009, 25: 1451–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saitou N, Nei M. Mol Biol Evol, 1987, 4: 406–425Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, et al. Mol Biol Evol, 2007, 24: 1596–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bandelt H J, Forster P, Rohl A. Mol Biol Evol, 1999, 16: 37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boyko A R, Boyko R H, Boyko C M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2009, 106: 13903–13908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fu Y X. Genetics, 1997, 147: 915–925Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shi H, Zhong H, Peng Y, et al. BMC Biol, 2008, 6: 45CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resourceYunnan UniversityKunmingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations