Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 56, Issue 9, pp 938–944 | Cite as

High-precision bio-replication of synthetic drag reduction shark skin

  • DeYuan ZhangEmail author
  • YuanYue Li
  • Xin Han
  • Xiang Li
  • HuaWei Chen
Open Access
Article Bionic Engineering


Nano-long chains were grafted over the replicated micro-grooves of shark skin in a novel attempt to replicate bio-synthetic drag reduction structure with high precision through synthetic bio-replication. Pre-treated shark skin was used as casting template to prepare a flexible female die of silicone rubber by soft die formation. A waterborne epoxy resin was then used to graft long-chains of drag reduction agent and prepare a synthetic drag reduction shark skin with nano-long chain drag reduction interface and lifelike micro-grooves. Replication precision analysis shows that this technology could replicate the complicated three-dimensional morphology of a biological drag reduction surface with high precision. Drag reduction experiments show that the material had an excellent synthetic drag reduction effect, with a maximal drag reduction rate of up to 24.6% over the velocities tested.


synthetic drag reduction high-precision shark skin synthetic bio-replication micro-groove nano-long chain 


  1. 1.
    Han X, Zhang D Y. Study on the micro-replication of shark skin. Sci China Ser E: Technol Sci, 2008, 51: 890–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Han X, Zhang D Y, Li X, et al. Bio-replicated forming of the biomimetic drag-reducing surfaces in large area based on shark skin. Chinese Sci Bull, 2008, 53: 1587–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bechert D W, Bruse M, Hage W, et al. Experiments on drag-reducing surfaces and their optimization with an adjustable geometry. J Fluid Mech, 1997, 338: 59–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bechert D W, Hoppe G, Reif W E. On the drag reduction of the shark skin. In: Davis S H, Lumley J L, eds. AIAA Shear Flow Control Conference, 1985 Mar 12–14, Boulder, Colorado. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Press, 1985. 1–17Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Choi K S, Gadd G E, Pearcey H H, et al. Tests of drag-reducing polymer coated on a riblet surface. Appl Sci Res, 1989, 46: 209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rohr J, Anderson G W, Reidy L W. An experimental investigation of the drag reducing effects of riblet in pipes. In: Sellin R H J, Moses R T, eds. Drag Reduction in Fluid Flows: Techniques for Friction Control. Chichester: Ellis Horwood Limited Publishers, 1990. 263–270Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christodoulou C, Liu K N, Joseph D D. Combined effects of riblets and polymers on drag reduction in pipes. Phys Fluids A, 1991, 3: 995–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anderson G W, Rohr J J, Stanley S D. The combined drag effects of riblets and polymers in pipe flow. J Fluids Eng, 1993, 115: 213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koury E, Virk P S. Drag reduction by polymer solutions in a riblet-lined pipe. Appl Sci Res, 1995, 54: 323–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mizunuma H, Ueda K, Yokouchi Y. Synergistic effects in turbulent drag reduction by riblets and polymer additives. J Fluids Eng, 1999, 121: 533–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dusan L, James G M, Ratnesh L, et al. Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica molding from diatom biosilica. Adv Funct Mater, 2007, 17: 2439–2446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu B, He Y N, Fan Y, et al. Fabricating super-hydrophobic lotus-leaf-like surfaces through soft-lithographic imprinting. Macromol Rapid Comm, 2006, 27: 1859–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu B, Fu Y Q, Ruan W Q, et al. Preparation of super-hydrophobic surfaces by using elastomer templates and UV-curable resin. Acta Polym Sin, 2008, 2: 155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang C, Yan Y R. Modification of Polymer Materials (in Chinese). Beijing: China Textiles Press, 2007. 7–12Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhu Y D, Meng Q W. Fauna S, Cyclosyomata, Chondrichthyes (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 2001. 123Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fen S Y, Zhang J, Li M J, et al. Organosilicon Polymer and Its Application (in Chinese). Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2004. 132Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang H L, Zhao H L, Jiang M D, et al. How to make a good use of polyacrylamide (in Chinese). Coal Process Compr Util, 2009, 2: 8–14Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cao Q F, Song W S, Zhu C C, et al. Summarization on research of di-butyl phthalate. Chin Adhes, 2007, 16: 47–49Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhao Z H. The preparation of underwater self-lubricant bionic coating and its performance analysis (in Chinese). Dissertation for the Master Degree. Harbin: Harbin Engineering University, 2007Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Walsh M J. Riblets as a viscous drag reduction technique. AIAA J, 1983, 21: 485–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li G P. Theoretical research of some key problems on oil and gas drag reduction agent and the application and development technology (in Chinese). Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Jinan: Shandong University, 2008Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Open AccessThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • DeYuan Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • YuanYue Li
    • 1
  • Xin Han
    • 2
  • Xiang Li
    • 1
  • HuaWei Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research CenterBeihang UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Agricultural and Food EngineeringShandong University of TechnologyZiboChina

Personalised recommendations