Advertisement

Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 614–620 | Cite as

Agricultural development and human diets in Gouwan site, Xichuan, Henan

  • QiaoMei Fu
  • SongAn Jin
  • YaoWu Hu
  • Zhao Ma
  • JianCai Pan
  • ChangSui Wang
Articles Geochemistry

Abstract

This paper undertook the C and N stable isotopic analysis of human bones unearthed at the Gouwan site in Xichuan, Henan, to reveal the human diets and to explore the lifestyle of humans and the development of rice and millet agriculture. The contribution of rice to human diets was almost equal to that of millet in this site though millet agriculture is the traditional economic model for the middle Yellow River Valley. On the other hand, the comparison of C and N stable isotopes in different cultural periods clearly indicates changes in millet and rice agriculture. Humans mainly depended on agriculture and gathering in the Yangshao Culture I. Millet agriculture, livestock rearing, and fishing were enhanced in the Yangshao Culture II. Millet agriculture and animal husbandry developed steadily in the Yangshao Culture III. After that the mixed rice and millet agriculture developed further. In addition, rice agriculture spread to the north in the climate suitable for cultural exchanges between north and south in the Yangshao Culture phases. In the Qujialing Culture period, under a colder climate, the rice farming was not dominant, though the Qujialing Culture played a key role in the site.

Keywords

mixed rice and millet agriculture C and N stable isotope analysis Palaeodietary reconstruction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    An Z M. Prevue on Chinese prehistory agriculture (in Chinese). Agricul Archaeol, 1987, 106–108Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang X G, Xu X. A discussion on the rice-millet blended zone in the Neolithic Age (in Chinese). Agricul His Chin, 2003, 22: 3–9Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang J Z. The discovery of rice remains (8000 a BP) at Jiahu site,Wuyan, Henan (in Chinese). China Cultural Relics News, Oct. 31, 2009Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crawford W G, Cheng X X, Wang J H, et al. The carbonized rice of Houli Culture discoverd at Yuezhuang site in Changqing, Jinan city, Shandong (in Chinese). Orient Archeol, 2006, 3: 247–252Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wei X T, Kong Z C, Liu C J. The discovery and significance of rice remains from Jiangkou site of Yangshao Culture in Shanmenxia (in Chinese). Agricul Archaoel, 2000, 77–79Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    You Q H. A discovery of ancient site around Xiaji in Xichuan County (in Chinese). Cultural Relics, 1960, 76–77Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lu H Y, Zhang J P. Neolithic cultural evolution and Holocene climate change in the Guanzhong Basin, Shaanxi, China (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 2008, 28: 1050–1060Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    An Z M. Identification and problems of Carbonized crops from Dahecun site-currently discuss the origin and cultivation of sorghum in China (in Chinese). Cultural Relics, 1981, 11: 66–71Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang J Z. Rice remains in Wuyang and pre-historical agriculture in Huanghuai areas (in Chinese). Agricul Archaeol, 1994, 68–77Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jiang X H, Zhang J K. Opal phytolith evidence of pre-historical rice agriculture at Balinggang site, Dengzhou, Henan (in Chinese). Peking Univ Acta, 1998, 34: 66–71Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Henan Division of Archeological Ministry in the Yangtze River Bains’ Regulation Office. Xiawanggang in Xichuan County (in Chinese). Beijing: Culture Relics Publishing House, 1989Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang W X, Wang H. Study on ancient cultivated rice at Qingyang site, Gansu (in Chinese). Agricul Archaeol, 2000, 80–85Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu G E, Xiang A Q. Discussion on the prehistorical south rice-north millet blended zone and its genesis (in Chinese). Agricul Archeol, 2005, 115–122Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kong Z C, Du N Q. Pollen analysis of Taosi site at Xiangfen (in Chinese). Shanxi Archeol, 1992, 178–181Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Department of archeology in Peking University, Yantai Museum. Archeology of Eastern Shandong (in Chinese). Beijing: Cultural Relics Publishing House, 2000Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Richards M P. A brief review of the archaeological evidence for Palaeolithic and Neolithic subsistence. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2002, 56: 1270–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jin S A, Zheng W Q, Cao Y P, et al. Great achievements in the archaeological excavation of Gouwan site in Xichuan, Nanyang City, Henan (in Chinese). China Cultural Relics News(2nd page), Feb. 4, 2009Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jin S A. The Communication and Merging of Archaeological Culture Between Heluo and Haidai Regions (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 2006Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ambrose S H, Butler B M, Hanson D H, et al. Stable isotopic analysis of human diet in the Marianas Archipelago, Western Pacific. Am J Phys Anthropol, 1997, 104: 343–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ambrose S H. Preparation and characterization of bone and tooth collagen for isotopic analysis. J Archaeol Sci, 1990, 17: 431–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    DeNiro M J. Post-mortem preservation and alternation of in vivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to palaeodietary reconstruction. Nature, 1985, 317: 806–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Van der Merwe N J. Carbon isotopes, photosysthesis and archaeology. Am Sci, 1982, 70: 596–606Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bocherens H, Fizet M, Mariotti A. Diet, physiology and ecology of fossil mammals as inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope biogenchemistry: implications for Pleistocene bears. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Paleoecol, 1994, 107: 215–225Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hu Y W. Paleodiet Analysis of Ancient People and Related Studies (in Chinese). Hefei: University of Science and Technology of China, 2002. 15–16Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ambrose S H, Katzenberg M A. Biogeochemical Approaches to Paleodietary Analysis. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publisher, 2000Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    McGovern P E, Zhang J, Zhang Z, et al. Fermented beverages of preand proto-historic China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2004, 101: 17593–17598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tieszen L L, Fagre T. Carbon isotopic variability in modern and archaeological maize. J Archaeol Sci, 1993, 20: 25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang X L, Wang J X, Xian Z Q, et al. Studies on ancient human diet (in Chinese). Archaeology, 2003, 62–75Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pechenkina E A, Ambrose S H, Ma X, et al. Reconstructing northern Chinese Neolithic subsistence practices by isotopic analysis. J Archaeol Sci, 2005, 32: 1176–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hu Y W, Wang G F, Cui Y P, et al. Palaeodietary study of Sanxingcun site, Jintan, Jiangsu. Chinese Sci Bull, 2007, 52: 85–88Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yuan J, Rowan F, Luo Y B. Meat-acquisition patterns in the Neolithic Yangtze River Valley. Antiquity, 2008, 82: 351–366Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yan W M. Fond of Reading “Xiawanggang site in Xichuan County” (in Chinese). Huaxia Archeol, 1990, 107–111Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fan L. Evolutionary sequence of the Neolithic culture in southwestern Henan and its relationship with the adjacent areas. Acta Archaeol Sin, 2000, 2: 147–182Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shi Y F, Kong Z C, Wang S M, et al. Holocene megathermal maximum climate and environment. Sci China Ser B, 1993, 23: 865–873Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Peng X Y, Zhong W, Zhao Y J, et al. Renewed recognition on the characteristic and the mechanism of the Holocene hypsithermal climate change (in Chinese). South China Normal Univ (Natural Science Edition), 2005, 2: 52–60Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhao Z, Jin S, Si B, et al. Analysis on plant remains in soil particle at Gouwan site, Xichuan (in Chinese). Huaxia Archeol, acceptedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jia L P, Zhang Z B. Fauna from Xiawanggang site, Xichuan, Henan (in Chinese). Cultural Relics, 1977, 41–49Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Luo B K. Study on the Qujialing Culture in Henan and discussion on the communication between the central plains and surrounding areas (in Chinese). Cultural Relics Central China, 1983, 13–20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press and Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • QiaoMei Fu
    • 1
  • SongAn Jin
    • 2
  • YaoWu Hu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Zhao Ma
    • 4
  • JianCai Pan
    • 1
  • ChangSui Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, School of the HumanitiesGraduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of ArcheologyZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  3. 3.Laboratory of Human Evolution and ArchaeometryChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Basic Medical CollegeZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina

Personalised recommendations