Advertisement

Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 51, Issue 21, pp 2624–2633 | Cite as

Tingia unita sp. nov. (Noeggerathiales) with strobilus from the Lower Permian of Wuda, Inner Mongolia, China

  • Wang Jun 
Articles

Abstract

A number of specimens recently collected from the Early Permian Shanxi Formation of Wuda, Inner Mongolia demonstrate that the leafy shoot and strobilus of Tingia unita sp. nov. are both sprouting from a common stem, and consequently improve our understanding of the whole plant morphology of this enigmatic taxon of the Cathaysian flora. The strobili are cylinder-like, 1.7–2.5 cm in diameter and over 20 cm in length, with a basal stalk 7–8 mm in width and about 7 cm long. Sporophylls are verticillate, with approximately 8–10 in a whorl. On the adaxial side of each sporophyll a sporangium is attached. The strobilus is heterosporous and the microspores are of the Punctatisporites type. Large leaves vary from linear to oblong with entire lateral margins but are slightly lobed at the apex. Small leaves are generally the same as the large leaves but much narrower. The whole plant is probably a small arborescent tree with leafy shoots and strobili forming a crown, rather than a water plant with larger leaves floating on the surface of the water as previously understood. Features of the new species are in favor of the close affinity between Tingia Halle and Noeggerathiales, and accordingly the affinity of Noeggerathiales to Progymnospermophyta.

Keywords

Tingia unita sp. nov Noeggerathiales Early Permian Inner Mongolia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Halle T G. Tingia, a new genus of fossil plants from the Permian of China. Bull Geol Surv China, 1925, 7: 1–12Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schenk A. Pflanzen aus der Steinkohlen Formation. In: Richthofen F V. China, 4. Berlin: Verlag von Dietrich Reimer, 1883. 221–244Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Halle T G. Palaeozoic plants from central Shansi. Palaeont Sin, Ser A, 1927, 2(1): 230–239Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kon’no E. On genera Tingia and Tingiostachya from the Lower Permian and Triassic Beds in Northern Korea. Jap J Geol Geogr, 1929, 6: 113–147Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gao Z F, Thomas B A. A re-evaluation of the plants Tingia and Tingiostachya from the Permian of Taiyuan, China. Palaeontology, 1987, 30: 815–828Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li X X, Shen G L, Tian B L, et al. Some notes on Carboniferous and Permian floras in China. In: Li X X, Zhou Z Y, Cai C Y, et al, eds. Fossil Floras of China Through the Geological Ages. Guangzhou: Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 1995. 244–302Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berthelin M, Broutin J, Kerp H, et al. The Oman Gharif mixed paleoflora: a useful tool for testing Permian Pangea reconstructions. Palaeogeog Palaeoclim Palaeoecol, 2003, 196: 85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu R, Wang X L. Reconstructions of the Vegetation from Some Representative Regions in China Through the Geology Times (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 1982. 1–50Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fairon-Demaret M, Hilton J, Berry C. Surface preparation of macrofossil (dégagement). In: Jones T P, Rowe N P, eds. Fossil Plants and Spores: Modern Techniques. The Geological Society, London. 1999. 33–35Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun K Q, Zhang Z L, Chen C L, et al. Early Early Permian flora in Wuda Area of Inner Mongolia. Geoscience (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 12(4): 586–590Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sun K Q, Deng S H, Cui J Z, et al. Discovery of Paratingia and Paratingiostachya from the Shanxi Formation of the Early Early Permian in the Wuda Area of Inner Mongolia, China. Acta Botan Sin (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 41(9): 1024–1026Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sun K Q, Deng S H. Discovery and significance of the genus Caulopteris from the Wuda Area of Inner Mongolia. Acta Botan Sin (in Chinese with English abstract) 1999, 41(5): 484–486Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Deng S H, Sun K Q, Li C S. A new gleicheniaceous fern Chansitheca (Sphenopteris) wudaensis from the Lower Permian of Wuda, Nei Mongol. China. Acta Botan Sin, 2000, 42(5): 533–538Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sun K Q, Deng S H. Carboniferous and Permian flora in the northern part of the Helan Mountains. Geoscience (in Chinese with English abstract), 2003, 17: 259–267Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang H. Palaeobotany. In Institute of Geology Exploration, CCMRI Coal Ministry and Provincial Coalfields Exploration Corporation of Shanxi, Sedimentary environment of the coal-bearing strata in Pinglu-Shuixian mining area, China (in Chinese). Xi’an: Shaanxi Peoples Education Publishing House, 1987. 195–204Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang G X. Plant fossil assemblage, stratigraphic division and palaeoclimatic analysis of Permian coal measures in Yuxian. In: Yang Q, ed. Depositional Environments and Coal-forming Characteristics of Late Palaeozoic Coal Measures in Yuxian, Henan Province (in Chinese with English summary). Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1987. 11–54Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kawasaki, S, The flora of the Heian system. Bull Geol Surv Chosen, 1934. 6: 47–311Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    He X L, Liang D S, Shen S Z. Research on the Permian flora from Jiangxi Province, China (in Chinese with English summary). Xuzhou: China University of Mining and Technology Press, 1996. 1–300Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stockmans F, Mathieu F F. La flore Paléozoïque basin Houiller de Kaiping (China), Bruxelles, Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique. 1939. 49–120Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sze H C. Late Palaeozoic plants from the Qingshuihe region of Inner Mongolia and the Hequ district of northwestern Shanxi. Palaeont Sin (in Chinese and English), 1989, 176 (New Series A 11): 1–268Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang G X, Chen Z H, Zhang S L. The flora’s characteristics of Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation of the eastern Zhungeerqi, Inner Mongolia. Earth Sci—J Wuhan College of Geology (in Chinese with English abstract), 1983, 22(4): 69–84Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang D X, He B, Zhang S L. Characteristics of Permian flora in Qilian Mountain region. Gansu Geol (in Chinese with English abstract), 1986, 6: 37–60Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mosbrugger V. Taxonomische, stratigraphische und paläobiogeographische Untersuchung der Perm-Flora von Baode (NW-Shanxi, China). Abschlußbericht zum DFG-Forschungsvorhaben Mo412/1. 1994Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xi Y H, Yan G S. Pteridophyta. In: Wang D Y, Yan G S, Jiang Y, et al, eds. Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Carboniferous and Early Permian in Henan (in Chinese). Beijing: China Prospect Publishing House, 1987. 258–259Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Němejc F. The morphology and the systematic relations of the Carboniferous Noeggerathiae with regard to the “genera” Tingia and Plagiozamites of eastern Asia — “Preslia”. Bull Soc Bot Techecoslov Prague, 1931, 10: 111–114Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Halle T G. Notes on the Noeggerathiineae. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 1954, 48H. 2: 368–380Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown I. The Noeggerathiae and Tingiae—the effects of their relationship upon the classification of the Pteridophyta: As Essay and a Review. New Phytologist, 1933, 32(5): 344–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zbynek S, Bek J. Noeggerathiaceae from the Carboniferous basins of the Bohemian Massif. Rev Palaeobotany Palynology, 2003, 125: 249–284Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leary R L, Pfefferkorn H W. An early Pennsylvanian flora with Megalopteris and Noeggerathiales from west-central Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, 1977, Circular 500: 1–77Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beck C B. Archaeopteris and its role in vascular plant evolution. In: Niklas K J, ed. Paleobotany, Paleoecology and Evolution, Vol. 1. New York: Praeger Press, 1981. 193–230Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Taylor T N, Taylor E L. The biology and evolution of fossil plants. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs, 1993. 440–459Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fairon-Demaret M, Leponce I. Leaf dimorphism in Archaeopteris roemeriana (Progymnosperm): further early fossil evidence of shoot dorsiventrality. Am J Botany, 2001, 88(4): 729–735Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu Z H, Geng B Y, Cui J Z, et al. Studies on the epidermal structure of Tingia carbonica. Acta Phytotaxonom Sin (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 36(4): 341–345Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LPS, Nanjing Institute of Geology and PalaeontologyChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations