Hexagonal warping effect on Majorana zero modes at the ends of superconducting vortex lines in doped strong 3D topological insulators
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In a superconducting topological insulator, a superconducting vortex line can trap a one-dimensional topological band with localized Majorana zero modes at the ends. Here, we study the effect of hexagonal warping and its corresponding symmetry-breaking effect on vortex phase transition. We perform both analytical calculations based on a semiclassical formula and numerical calculations based on full quantum mechanics using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. We find that the hexagonal warping term extends the topological region of the vortex line as the chemical potential changes and leads to MZMs, even in the absence of topological surface states.
Key wordstopological insulator topological superconductor vortex phase transition Majorana zero modes hexagonal warping
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