Theoretical investigation on Raman induced kerr effect spectroscopy in nonlinear confocal microscopy



The imaging theory of Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (RIKES) in nonlinear confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional point spread function (3D-PSF) of RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy in isotropic media is derived with Fourier imaging theory and RIKES theory. The impact of nonlinear property of RIKES on the spatial resolution and imaging properties of confocal microscopy have been analyzed in detail. It is proved that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy can simultaneously provide more information than two-photon confocal microscopy concerning molecular vibration mode, vibration orientation and optically induced molecular reorientation, etc. It is shown that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy significantly enhances the spatial resolution and imaging quality of confocal microscopy and achieves much higher resolution than that of two-photon confocal microscopy.


nonlinear confocal microscopy Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy three-dimensional point spread function 


  1. 1.
    Squier J, Muller M. High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optical imaging. Rev Sci Instrum, 2001, 72(7): 2855–2867CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Helmchen F, Denk W. New developments in multiphoton microscopy. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 2002, 12: 593–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gauderon R, Lukins P B, Sheppard C J R. Simultaneous multichannal nonlinear imaging: Combined two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation microscopy. Micron, 2001, 32: 685–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tang Z L, Yang C P, Pei H J, et al. Imaging theory and resolution improvement of two-photon confocal microscopy. Sci China Ser A, 2002, 45(11): 1468–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tang Z L, Xing D, Liu S H, Imaging theory of nonlinear second harmonic and third harmonic generations in confocal microscopy, Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron, 2004, 47(1): 8–16CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mertz J, Moreaux L. Second-harmonic generation by focused excitation of inhomogeneously distributed scatterers. Opt Commun, 2001, 196: 325–330CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yuan J H, Xiao F R, Cheng C F, et al. The intensity distribution of collected signals in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. Colloid Surface A, 2005, 257–258: 525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yakovlev V V. Broadband cost-effective nonlinear Raman microscopy. Proc SPIE, 2004, 5323: 214–220CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mertz J. Nonlinear microscopy: New techniques and applications. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 2004, 14: 610–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Volkmer A. Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. J Phys D, 2005, 38: 59–81CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kobayashi N, Egami C. High-resolution optical storage by use of minute spheres. Opt Lett, 2005, 30(3): 299–301CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huff T B, Cheng J X. In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue. J Microsc, 2007, 225(2): 175–182CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Potma E O, de Boeij W P, Wiersma D A. Femtosecond dynamics of intracellular water probed with nonlinear optical Kerr effect microspectroscopy. Biophys J, 2001, 80(6): 3019–3024Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yasui T, Minoshima K, Abraham E, et al. Microscopic time-resolved two-dimensional imaging with a femtosecond amplifying optical Kerr gate. Appl Opt, 2002, 41(24): 5191–5194CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heiman D, Hellwarth R W, Levenson M D, et al. Raman-induced Kerr effect. Phys Rev Lett, 1976, 36(4): 189–192CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bhatia P S, Keto J W. Pressure and power dependence of the optically heterodyne Raman-induced Kerr effect line shape. Phys Rev A, 1999, 59(5): 4045–4051CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giraud G, Karolin J, Wynne K. Low-frequency modes of peptides and globular proteins in solution observed by ultrafast OHD-RIKES spectroscopy. Biophysics, 2003, 85: 1903–1913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang N, Zhang D J, Zhang S C, et al. Characteristics and quantitative of negative ion in salt aqueous solution by Raman spectroscopy at −170°C. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 2006, 49(2): 124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xu Y M, Lu C Z. Raman spectroscopic study on structure of human immu-nodeficiency virus (HIV) and hypericin-induced photosen-sitive damage of HIV. Sci China Ser C-Life Sci, 2005, 48(2): 117–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eesley G L. Coherent Raman Spectroscopy. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981. 40–50Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yu Y Q, Zhou X G, Lin K, et al. Profile comparison between the Raman-induced Kerr effect spectrum and photoacoustic Raman spectrum of methane. Acta Phys Sin, 2006, 55(6): 2740–2745Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Physics and Telecommunication EngineeringSouth China Normal UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science, Ministry of Education of ChinaSouth China Normal UniversityGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations