Development of electric cart for improving walking ability — application of control theory to assistive technology

  • Jinhua SheEmail author
  • Yasuhiro OhyamaEmail author
  • Min WuEmail author
  • Hiroshi HashimotoEmail author


This paper explains the development of an electric cart that helps the elderly maintain or improve their physical strength. Unlike commercially available ones, it has a pedal unit that provides some exercise for a user in training his lower limbs. An impedance model describes the feeling of pushing the pedals. The largest pedal load is determined based on a pedaling experiment. An H controller is designed for each of the largest pedal load and virtually no load. A control law, which is based on the concept of dynamic parallel distributed compensation, is designed using the rating of perceived exertion of a driver as a criterion to choose a pedal load between the largest and almost zero. Five university students and twelve elderly people participated experiments to verify the system design and the validity of the system.


aging Borg’s scale dynamic parallel distributed compensation electrical cart H control Karvonen formula lower limbs pedaling rating of perceived exertion 



This work was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (Grant Nos. 18560259, 26350673), and partially by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant No. 16H02883). This work was also supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473313, 61210011), Hubei Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2015CFA010), and the 111 Project of China (Grant No. B17040).

Supplementary material

11432_2017_9261_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.5 mb)
Development of Electric Cart for Improving Walking Ability

Supplementary material, approximately 27.1 MB.

Supplementary material, approximately 304 MB.


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Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EngineeringTokyo University of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.School of AutomationChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Intelligent Automation for Complex SystemsWuhanChina
  4. 4.Master Program of Innovation for Design & EngineeringAdvanced Institute of Industrial TechnologyTokyoJapan

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