Analysis of microwave brightness temperature of lunar surface and inversion of regolith layer thickness: Primary results of Chang-E 1 multi-channel radiometer observation
In China’s first lunar exploration project, Chang-E 1 (CE-1), a multi-channel microwave radiometer was aboard the satellite, with the purpose of measuring microwave brightness temperature from lunar surface and surveying the global distribution of lunar regolith layer thickness. In this paper, the primary 621 tracks of swath data measured by Chang-E 1 microwave radiometer from November 2007 to February 2008 are collected and analyzed. Using nearest neighbor interpolation based on the sun incidence angle in observations, global distributions of microwave brightness temperature from lunar surface at lunar daytime and nighttime are constructed. Using the three-layer model (the top dust-soil, regolith and underlying rock media) for microwave thermal emission of lunar surface, the measurements of brightness temperature and dependence upon latitude, frequency and FeO+TiO2 content, etc. are discussed. On the basis of the ground measurements at Apollo landing sites, the observed brightness temperature at these locations are validated and calibrated by numerical three-layer modeling. Using the empirical dependence of physical temperature upon the latitude verified by the measurements at Apollo landing sites, the global distribution of regolith layer thickness is then inverted from the brightness temperature data of CE-1 at 3 GHz channel. Those inversions at Apollo landing sites are compared with the Apollo in situ measurements. Finally, the statistical property of regolith thickness distribution is analyzed and discussed.
KeywordsChang-E 1 multi-channel brightness temperature Apollo landing site physical temperature inversion of regolith layer thickness
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