Science China Technological Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 11, pp 1939–1947 | Cite as

Plasma preparation method and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon coating on magnesium alloy AZ31 substrate

  • BeiBei Han
  • DongYing JuEmail author
  • Susumu Sato
  • HuiJun Zhao


Magnesium alloys are light weight and exhibit good recyclability but suffer from low hardness and wear resistance. In this study, the hardness and wear resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy were improved by depositing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective coatings using ion-beam-enhanced deposition with various CH4/H2 ratio, gas flow rates and accelerating voltages. The supporting effect of the magnesium alloy was enhanced by the production of a graded interfacial layer which is composed of film atoms and substrate atoms. The composition and mechanical properties of the DLC coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Rockwell test and nano-indentor. The tribological properties of the coating were also investigated using a frictional surface microscope with an in situ observation system and friction force measurements. The DLC films were characterized by a lower intensity ratio of the D-peak to G-peak (ID/IG), higher hardness, and improved tribological properties when deposited at a lower accelerating voltage (6 kV). At the CH4/H2 ratio of 1:99 and 6 sccm/6 kV, minimum ID/IG values of 0.62, relatively low friction force value of 0.12 N, and a maximum hardness of 4056HV were attained respectively. In addition, the DLC film exhibited improved wear resistance and a shallower wear track at this condition.


DLC film magnesium alloy plasma preparation hardness wear resistance 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



  1. 1.
    Song Y L, Liu Y H, Yu S R, et al. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy modified by neodymium and its corrosion resistance. Appl Surf Sci, 2008, 254: 3014–3020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ghasemi A, Raja V S, Blawert C, et al. Study of the structure and corrosion behavior of PEO coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surf Coat Technol, 2008, 202: 3513–3518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dutta Majumdar J, Galun R, Mordike B L, et al. Effect of laser surface melting on corrosion and wear resistance of a commercial magnesium alloy. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2003, 361: 119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ma G, Gong S, Lin G, et al. A study of structure and properties of Ti-doped DLC film by reactive magnetron sputtering with ion implantation. Appl Surf Sci, 2012, 258: 3045–3050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu Y, Erdemir A, Meletis E I. A study of the wear mechanism of diamond-like carbon films. Surf Coat Technol, 1996, 82: 48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mutyala K C, Singh H, Evans R D, et al. Deposition, characterization, and performance of tribological coatings on spherical rolling elements. Surf Coat Technol, 2015, 284: 302–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dai W, Wu G, Wang A. Preparation, characterization and properties of Cr-incorporated DLC films on magnesium alloy. Diamond Related Mater, 2010, 19: 1307–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wu G, Dai W, Zheng H, et al. Improving wear resistance and corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy by DLC/AlN/Al coating. Surf Coat Technol, 2010, 205: 2067–2073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Choi J, Kim J, Nakao S, et al. Friction properties of protective DLC films on magnesium alloy in aqueous NaCl solution. Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Sect B-Beam Interactions Mater Atoms, 2007, 257: 718–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harada Y, Kumai S. Effect of ceramics coating using sol-gel processing on corrosion resistance and age hardening of AZ80 magnesium alloy substrate. Surf Coat Technol, 2013, 228: 59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Száraz Z, Trojanová Z, Cabbibo M, et al. Strengthening in a WE54 magnesium alloy containing SiC particles. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2007, 462: 225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liang J, Wang P, Hu L T, et al. Tribological properties of duplex MAO/DLC coatings on magnesium alloy using combined microarc oxidation and filtered cathodic arc deposition. Mater Sci Eng A, 2007, 454–455: 164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sun H Q, Shi Y N, Zhang M X. Wear behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy with a nanocrystalline surface layer. Surf Coat Technol, 2008, 202: 2859–2864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deutchman A H, Partyka R J. Ion beam enhanced deposition. Adv Mater Process, 2003, 161: 33–35Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deutchman A H, Partyka R J. Industrial scale ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) processing system. In: ASM International Surface Engineering Congress. Columbus, 2002. 676–684Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sioshansi P, Tobin E J. Surface treatment of biomaterials by ion beam processes. Surf Coat Technol, 1996, 83: 175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cui J, Qiang L, Zhang B, et al. Mechanical and tribological properties of Ti-DLC films with different Ti content by magnetron sputtering technique. Appl Surf Sci, 2012, 258: 5025–5030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Furlan K P, Klein A N, Hotza D. Diamond-like carbon films deposited by hydrocarbon plasma sources. Rev Adv Mater Sci, 2013, 34: 165–172Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dai W, Gao X, Liu J, et al. Compositionally modulated multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Appl Surf Sci, 2017, 425: 855–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Robertson J. Diamond-like amorphous carbon. Mater Sci Eng-R-Rep, 2002, 37: 129–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Casiraghi C, Ferrari A C, Robertson J. Raman spectroscopy of hydrogenated amorphous carbons. Phys Rev B, 2005, 72: 085401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sattel S, Robertson J, Ehrhardt H. Effects of deposition temperature on the properties of hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon. J Appl Phys, 1997, 82: 4566–4576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dwivedi N, Rismani-Yazdi E, Yeo R J, et al. Probing the role of an atomically thin SiNx interlayer on the structure of ultrathin carbon films. Sci Rep, 2014, 4: 5021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carlo Ferrari A, Robertson J. Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond-like carbon, and nanodiamond. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser A-Math Phys Eng Sci, 2004, 362: 2477–2512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferrari A C, Robertson J. Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon. Phys Rev B, 2001, 64: 075414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zou Y S, Wu Y F, Yang H, et al. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy. Appl Surf Sci, 2011, 258: 1624–1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ding W, Guo Y, Ju D, et al. The effect of CH4/H2 ratio on the surface properties of HDPE treated by CHx ion beam bombardment. Mod Phys Lett B, 2016, 30: 1650214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liang J H, Chen M H, Tsai W F, et al. Characteristics of diamond-like carbon film synthesized on AISI 304 austenite stainless steel using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Sect B-Beam Interactions Mater Atoms, 2007, 257: 696–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li X, Bhushan B. Micro/nanomechanical and tribological characterization of ultrathin amorphous carbon coatings. J Mater Res, 1999, 14: 2328–2337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kayali Y, Taktak S. Characterization and Rockwell-C adhesion properties of chromium-based borided steels. J Adhes Sci Tech, 2015, 29: 2065–2075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hase A, Mishina H, Wada M. Acoustic emission in elementary processes of friction and wear: In-situ observation of friction surface and AE signals. J Adv Mech Des Syst, 2009, 3: 333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu E, Shi X, Tan H S, et al. The effect of nitrogen on the mechanical properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films deposited with a filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Surf Coat Technol, 1999, 120–121: 601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Voevodin A A, Phelps A W, Zabinski J S, et al. Friction induced phase transformation of pulsed laser deposited diamond-like carbon. Diamond Related Mater, 1996, 5: 1264–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Erdemir A, Bindal C, Fenske G R, et al. Characterization of transfer layers forming on surfaces sliding against diamond-like carbon. Surf Coat Technol, 1996, 86–87: 692–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aboua K A M, Umehara N, Kousaka H, et al. Effect of carbon diffusion on friction and wear properties of diamond-like carbon in boundary base oil lubrication. Tribol Int, 2017, 113: 389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • BeiBei Han
    • 1
  • DongYing Ju
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Susumu Sato
    • 5
  • HuiJun Zhao
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringSaitama Institute of TechnologyFukayaJapan
  2. 2.Advanced Science InstituteSaitama Institute of TechnologyFukayaJapan
  3. 3.Ningbo Institute of Materials Industry InnovationNingboChina
  4. 4.School of Mechanical EngineeringHangzhou Dianzi UniversityHangzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of Information SystemSaitama Institute of TechnologyFukayaJapan

Personalised recommendations