Numerical study on flow and heat transfer characteristics of microchannel designed using topological optimizations method

  • DingHua Hu
  • ZhiWei Zhang
  • Qiang LiEmail author


Microchannel has demonstrated advantages in the thermal management of integrated chip. In this study, the topology optimization method is applied for designing a topological microchannel to optimize the performances of both heat dissipation and pressure drop. To validate the performance of the topological structure, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of topological microchannel under non-uniform heating flux are numerically studied. The topological structure is designed to cool a heating area of 10 mm × 10 mm with 4 hotspots. Heat flux is 40 W/cm2 in the hotspot area, while it is only 15 W/cm2 in the rest heating area. The results of heat dissipation performance and pressure drop are compared with those of conventional straight microchannel. Numerical result shows that, compared to the straight microchannel, the hotspot temperature and pressure drop of topological microchannel can be reduced by 4 and 0.6 kPa, respectively, under the flow rate of 2.2×10−4 kg/s. The coefficient of performance (COP) of topological microchannel can be 16.1% better than that of straight microchannel, which can be attributed to the effects of optimized bifurcation and confluence structural of topological microchannel.


topology optimization microchannel heat dissipation pressure drop hotspot 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



  1. 1.
    Mu Y T, Chen L, He Y L, et al. Numerical study on temperature uniformity in a novel mini-channel heat sink with different flow field configurations. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2015, 85: 147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bailey C. Thermal management technologies for electronic packaging: Current capabilities and future challenges for modelling tools. In: Proceedings of the Electronics Packaging Technology Conference. New Jersey: IEEE, 2008Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sauciuc L, Chrysler G, Mahajan R, et al. Air-cooling extension-performance limits for processor cooling applications. In: Proceedings of the Ninteenth Annual IEEE, Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium. San Jose: IEEE, 2003Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pease R F W. IIIB-8 implications of high performance heat sinking for electron devices. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 1981, 28: 1230–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tilley B S. On microchannel shapes in liquid-cooled electronics applications. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2013, 62: 163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mizunuma H, Lu Y C, Yang C L. Thermal modeling and analysis for 3-D ICs with integrated microchannel cooling. IEEE Trans Comput-Aided Des Integr Circuits Syst, 2011, 30: 1293–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sui Y, Teo C J, Lee P S, et al. Fluid flow and heat transfer in wavy microchannels. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2010, 53: 2760–2772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ghahremannezhad A, Vafai K. Thermal and hydraulic performance enhancement of microchannel heat sinks utilizing porous substrates. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2018, 122: 1313–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang G, Qian N, Ding G. Heat transfer enhancement in microchannel heat sink with bidirectional rib. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2019, 136: 597–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mohammadi M, Jovanovic G N, Sharp K V. Numerical study of flow uniformity and pressure characteristics within a microchannel array with triangular manifolds. Comput Chem Eng, 2013, 52: 134–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bi C, Tang G H, Tao W Q. Heat transfer enhancement in mini-channel heat sinks with dimples and cylindrical grooves. Appl Thermal Eng, 2013, 55: 121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Al-Neama A F, Kapur N, Summers J, et al. An experimental and numerical investigation of the use of liquid flow in serpentine microchannels for microelectronics cooling. Appl Thermal Eng, 2017, 116: 709–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang C, Lian Y, Yu X, et al. Numerical and experimental studies on laminar hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics in fractal-like microchannel networks. Part A: Comparisons of two numerical analysis methods on friction factor and Nusselt number. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2013, 66: 930–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang C, Lian Y, Hsu C H, et al. Investigations of thermal and flow behavior of bifurcations and bends in fractal-like microchannel networks: Secondary flow and recirculation flow. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2015, 85: 723–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen Y, Yao F, Huang X. Mass transfer and reaction in methanol steam reforming reactor with fractal tree-like microchannel network. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2015, 87: 279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xie G, Shen H, Wang C C. Parametric study on thermal performance of microchannel heat sinks with internal vertical Y-shaped bifurcations. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2015, 90: 948–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang X Q, Mujumdar A S, Yap C. Thermal characteristics of tree-shaped microchannel nets for cooling of a rectangular heat sink. Int J Thermal Sci, 2006, 45: 1103–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Escher W, Michel B, Poulikakos D. Efficiency of optimized bifurcating tree-like and parallel microchannel networks in the cooling of electronics. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2009, 52: 1421–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huang Z, Hwang Y, Radermacher R. Review of nature-inspired heat exchanger technology. Int J Refrigeration, 2017, 78: 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bendsøe M P, Sigmund O. Topology Optimization: Theory, Methods and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Olesen L H, Okkels F, Bruus H. A high-level programming-language implementation of topology optimization applied to steady-state Navier-Stokes flow. Int J Numer Meth Engng, 2006, 65: 975–1001MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guest J K, Prévost J H. Topology optimization of creeping fluid flows using a Darcy-Stokes finite element. Int J Numer Meth Engng, 2006, 66: 461–484MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Duan X B, Li F F, Qin X Q. Adaptive mesh method for topology optimization of fluid flow. Appl Math Lett, 2015, 44: 40–44MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yoon G H. Topological design of heat dissipating structure with forced convective heat transfer. J Mech Sci Technol, 2010, 24: 1225–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coffin P, Maute K. Level Set Topology Optimization of Cooling and Heating Devices Using a Simplified Convection Model. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marck G, Nemer M, Harion J L. Topology optimization of heat and mass transfer problems: Laminar flow. Numer Heat Transfer Part B-Fundamentals, 2013, 63: 508–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Borrvall T, Petersson J. Topology optimization of fluids in stokes flow. Int J Numer Meth Fluids, 2003, 41: 77–107MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lei T, Alexandersen J, Lazarov B S, et al. Investment casting and experimental testing of heat sinks designed by topology optimization. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2018, 127: 396–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haertel J H K, Nellis G F. A fully developed flow thermofluid model for topology optimization of 3D-printed air-cooled heat exchangers. Appl Thermal Eng, 2017, 119: 10–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zeng S, Kanargi B, Lee P S. Experimental and numerical investigation of a mini channel forced air heat sink designed by topology optimization. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2018, 121: 663–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yaji K, Yamada T, Kubo S, et al. A topology optimization method for a coupled thermal-fluid problem using level set boundary expressions. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2015, 81: 878–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhou M, Alexandersen J, Sigmund O, et al. Industrial application of topology optimization for combined conductive and convective heat transfer problems. Struct Multidisc Optim, 2016, 54: 1045–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Koga A A, Lopes E C C, Villa Nova H F, et al. Development of heat sink device by using topology optimization. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2013, 64: 759–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Siddiqui O K, Zubair S M. Efficient energy utilization through proper design of microchannel heat exchanger manifolds: A comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 2017, 74: 969–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Matsumori T, Kondoh T, Kawamoto A, et al. Topology optimization for fluid-thermal interaction problems under constant input power. Struct Multidisc Optim, 2013, 47: 571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dbouk T. A review about the engineering design of optimal heat transfer systems using topology optimization. Appl Thermal Eng, 2017, 112: 841–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Svanberg K. The method of moving asymptotes—a new method for structural optimization. Int J Numer Meth Engng, 1987, 24: 359–373MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang X Q, Mujumdar A S, Yap C. Effect of bifurcation angle in tree-shaped microchannel networks. J Appl Phys, 2007, 102: 073530CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MIIT Key Laboratory of Thermal Control of Electronic EquipmentNanjing University of Science and TechnologyNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations