Advertisement

Science China Technological Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 4, pp 649–664 | Cite as

A generalized plasticity model for the stress-strain and creep behavior of rockfill materials

  • ZhongZhi FuEmail author
  • ShengShui Chen
  • KuangMin Wei
Article
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

The generalized plasticity constitutive equations that simulate, in a unified manner, the stress-strain response and the creep behavior of rockfill materials are derived using the concept of elastoplasticity. A single yield surface is assumed to capture the onset of plastic strains with, however, two separate potential functions for the stress-induced plastic strains and the creep strains, respectively. The involved tensors and scalars are then specified directly, following the generalized plasticity method, to substantiate the constitutive equations. The model thus obtained is verified using triaxial compression experiments, true triaxial experiments and triaxial creep experiments. The effectiveness of the model is also demonstrated by a successful application in studying the behavior of a high concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD). It is found that for a high CFRD with a long construction period, neglecting the creep of rockfill materials during construction results in an underestimation of the deformation of the dam. The deformation and stress of the concrete slabs may also be considerably underestimated.

Keywords

rockfill materials creep behavior constitutive model generalized plasticity concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD) 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cooke J B. Progress in rockfill dams. J Geotech Engrg, 1984, 110: 1381–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD). Concrete Face Rockfill Dams, Concepts for Design and Construction. Beijing: China Water Power Press, 2010Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xing H F, Gong X N, Zhou X G, et al. Construction of concrete-faced rockfill dams with weak rocks. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, 2006, 132: 778–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Won M S, Kim Y S. A case study on the post-construction deformation of concrete face rockfill dams. Can Geotech J, 2008, 45: 845–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang B, Wang J G, Shi R. Time-dependent deformation in high concrete-faced rockfill dam and separation between concrete face slab and cushion layer. Comput Geotechnics, 2004, 31: 559–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clements R P. Post-construction deformation of rockfill dams. J Geotechnical Eng, 1984, 110: 821–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dascal O. Postconstruction deformation of rockfill dams. J Geotech Eng, 1987, 113: 46–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hunter G, Fell R. Rockfill modulus and settlement of concrete face rockfill dams. J Geotechnical Geoenviron Eng, 2003, 129: 909–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feda J. Creep of Soils and Related Phenomena. Prague: Academia-Elsevier, 1992Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shen Z J, Zuo Y M. Study on rheology characteristics of rockfill. In: Proceedings of 6th Chinese Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 1991. 443–44.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cheng Z L, Ding H S. Creep test for rockfill. Chin J Geotech Eng, 2004, 26: 473–47.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oldecop L A, Alonso E E. Theoretical investigation of the time-dependent behaviour of rockfill. Géotechnique, 2007, 57: 289–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bauer E, Fu Z Z, Liu S H. Influence of pressure and density on the rheological properties of rockfills. Frontiers of Structural Civil Eng China, 2012, 6: 25–3.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fu Z Z, Chen S S, Liu S H. Hypoplastic constitutive modelling of the wetting induced creep of rockfill materials. Sci China Technol Sci, 2012, 55: 2066–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dolezalova M, Hladik I. Constitutive models for simulation of field performance of dams. Int J Geomech, 2011, 11: 477–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang H J, Yin Z Z. Creep tests of rockfill and double-yield surface creep model. Chin J Geotech Eng, 2008, 30: 959–96.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fu Z Z, Wang T B, Chen S S. Field observations made on four concrete face rockfill dams. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Civil Engineering and Urban Planning. Beijing, 2015. 589–59.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pastor M, Zienkiewicz O C, Chan A H C. Generalized plasticity and the modelling of soil behaviour. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech, 1990, 14: 151–19.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ling H I, Liu H. Pressure-level dependency and densification behavior of sand through generalized plasticity model. J Eng Mech, 2003, 129: 851–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ling H I, Yang S. Unified sand model based on the critical state and generalized plasticity. J Eng Mech, 2006, 132: 1380–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fu Z, Chen S, Peng C. Modeling cyclic behavior of rockfill materials in a framework of generalized plasticity. Int J Geomech, 2014, 14: 191–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang B, Chen T, Peng C, et al. Experimental study on loading-creep coupling effect in rockfill material. Int J Geomech, 2017, 17: 0401705.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fu Z, Chen S, Shi B. Large-scale triaxial experiments on the creep behavior of a saturated rockfill material. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, 2018, 144: 0401803.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lade P V, Liggio Jr. C D, Nam J. Strain rate, creep, and stress dropcreep experiments on crushed coral sand. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, 2009, 135: 941–95.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xiao Y, Liu H, Desai C S, et al. Effect of intermediate principal-stress ratio on particle breakage of rockfill material. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, 2016, 142: 0601501.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xiao Y, Liu H, Liu H, et al. Strength and dilatancy behaviors of dense modeled rockfill material in general stress space. Int J Geomech, 2016, 16: 0401601.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nakai T. A unified mechanical quantity for granular materials in threedimensional stresses. In: Proceedings of U.S./Japan Seminar on the Micromechanics of Granular Materials. Sendai-Zao, 1987. 297–30.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pradhan T B S, Tatsuoka F, Sato Y. Experimental stress-dilatancy relations of sand subjected to cyclic loading. Soils Found, 1989, 29: 45–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guo P J, Stolle D F E. The extension of Rowe’s stress-dilatancy model to general stress condition. Soils Foundations, 2004, 44: 1–1.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim M K, Lade P V. Single hardening constitutive model for frictional materials. Comput Geotechnics, 1988, 5: 307–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ottosen N S, Ristinmaa M. The Mechanics of Constitutive Modeling. London: Elsevier, 2005Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Duncan J M, Chang C Y. Nonlinear analysis of stress and strain in soils. J Soil Mech Found Eng Division, ASCE, 1970, 96: 1629–165.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lade P V. Assessment of test data for selection of 3-D failure criterion for sand. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech, 2006, 30: 307–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Matsuoka H, Yao Y, Sun D. The cam-clay models revised by the smp criterion. Soils Found, 1999, 39: 81–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yao Y. Generalized non-linear strength theory and transformed stress space. Sci China Ser E, 2004, 47: 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li G Y, Mi Z K, Fu H, et al. Experimental studies on rheological behaviors for rockfills in concrete faced rockfill dams. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2004, 25: 1712–171.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ling H, Han H Q, Shi B X. Experimental Research on the Engineering Properties of the Fill Materials Used in the Dashixia Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam. Research Report. Nanjing: Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, 2017Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shi W C. True Triaxial Tests on Coarse-Grained Soils and Study on Constitutive Model. Dissertation for Dcotoral Degree. Nanjing: Hehai University, 2008Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fu H, Ling H. Experimental Research on the Engineering Properties of the Fill Materials Used in the Cihaxia Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam. Research Report. Nanjing: Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, 2009Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rodriguez N M, Lade P V. True triaxial tests on cross-anisotropic deposits of fine Nevada sand. Int J Geomech, 2013, 13: 779–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fu Z Z, Chen S S. Stress and Consolidation Analysis Program for Earth and Rockfill Structures (SCAPERS), Theory and Manual. Research Report. Nanjing: Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, 2014Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yang Q G, Liu N, Sun Y, et al. Construction Technologies in the Shuibuya Concrete Face Rockfill Dam. Beijing: China Water Power Press, 2010Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhou W, Hua J, Chang X, et al. Settlement analysis of the Shuibuya concrete-face rockfill dam. Comput Geotechnics, 2011, 38: 269–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhou X, Ma G, Zhang Y. Grain size and time effect on the deformation of rockfill dams: A case study on the Shuibuya CFRD. Géotechnique, 2018, 1–1.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goodman R E, Taylor R L, Brekke T L. A model for the mechanics of jointed rock. J Soil Mech Found Division, ASCE, 1968, 94: 637–65.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Xu B, Zou D, Liu H. Three-dimensional simulation of the construction process of the Zipingpu concrete face rockfill dam based on a generalized plasticity model. Comput Geotechnics, 2012, 43: 143–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gu G C, Shu Y M, Shen C S. Experiences and Innovations in Earth and Rockfill Dam Engineering. Beijing: China Electric Power Press, 2004Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zienkiewicz O C, Pande G N. Some useful forms of isotropic yield surfaces for soil and rock mechanics. Gudehus G, ed. In: Finite Elements in Geomechanics. Chichester: Wiley. 1977. 179–19.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yao Y P, Wang N D. Transformed stress method for generalizing soil constitutive models. J Eng Mech, 2014, 140: 614–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geotechnical Engineering DepartmentNanjing Hydraulic Research InstituteNanjingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Failure Mechanism and Safety Control Techniques of Earth-rock DamNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations