Revisit of energy transfer upconversion luminescence dynamics—the role of energy migration
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Upconversion is a process in which one photon is emitted upon absorption of several photons of lower energy. Potential applications include super resolution spectroscopy, high density data storage, anti-counterfeiting and biological imaging and photo-induced therapy. Upconversion luminescence dynamics has long been believed to be determined solely by the emitting ions and their interactions with neighboring sensitizing ions. Recent research shows that this does not hold for nanostructures. The luminescence time behavior in the nanomaterials is confirmed seriously affected by the migration process of the excitation energy. This new fundamental insight is significant for the design of functional upconversion nanostructures. In this paper we review relevant theoretical and spectroscopic results and demonstrate how to tune the rise and decay profile of upconversion luminescence based on energy migration path modulation.
Keywordsrare earth upconversion energy migration luminescence dynamics
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