Science China Technological Sciences

, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 489–504 | Cite as

Large eddy simulation and proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of turbulent flows in a direct injection spark ignition engine: Cyclic variation and effect of valve lift

  • WenJin Qin
  • MaoZhao XieEmail author
  • Ming Jia
  • TianYou Wang
  • DaMing Liu
Article Special Topic: Combustion in Engines


Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to calculate the in-cylinder turbulent flow field in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. The computations are carried out for three different maximum valve lifts (MVL) and throughout 100 consecutive engine cycles. The simulated results as well as corresponding particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement database are analyzed by the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method. Through a new developed POD quadruple decomposition the instantaneous in-cylinder flow fields are decomposed into four parts, named mean field, coherent field, transition field and turbulent field, respectively. Then the in-cylinder turbulent flow characteristics and cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) are studied separately upon the four part flow fields. Results indicate that each part exhibits its specific characteristics and has close connection with others. The mean part contains more than 50% of the total kinetic energy and the energy cascade phenomenon occurs among the four part fields; the coherent field part possesses the highest CCV level which dominates CCV of the bulk flow. In addition, it is observed that a change in MVL affects significantly the in-cylinder flow behavior including CCV, especially for the coherent part. Furthermore, the POD analysis demonstrates that at least 25 sample cycles for the mean velocity and 50 sample cycles for the RMS velocity are necessary for obtaining converged and correct results in CCV.


in-cylinder flow turbulence proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) large eddy simulation cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ozdor N, Dulger M, Sher E. Cyclic variability in spark ignition engines-a literature survey. SAE Paper, 1994, 940987Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Naitoh K, Itoh T, Takagi Y, et al. Large eddy simulation of premixed-flame in engine based on the multi-level formulation and the renormalization group theory. SAE Paper, 1992, 920590Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Haworth D. Large-eddy simulation of in-cylinder flows. Oil and Gas Science and Technology-Revue de l’IFP-Institut Francais du Petrole. 1999, 54: 175192Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haworth D, Jansen K. Large-eddy simulation on unstructured deforming meshes: towards reciprocating IC engines. Comput Fluids, 2000, 29: 493–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Verzicco R, Mohd Y J, Orlandi P, et al. LES in complex geometries using boundary body forces. Center for Turbulence Research Proceedings of the Summer Program, 1998Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adomeit P, Lang O, Pischinger S, et al. Analysis of cyclic fluctuations of charge motion and mixture formation in a DISI engine in stratified operation. SAE Paper, 2007, 01: 1412Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vermorel O, Richard S, Colin O, et al. Towards the understanding of cyclic variability in a spark ignited engine using multi-cycle LES. Combust Flame, 2009, 156: 1525–1541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vermorel O, Richard S, Colin O, et al. Multi-cycle LES simulations of flow and combustion in a PFI SI 4-valve production engine. SAE paper, 2007, 01: 0151Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lumley J. The structure of inhomogeneous turbulent flows. Atmospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation. Moscow: Nauka, 1967. 166–178Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang Q, Fu S. Analysis of flow structures in supersonic plane mixing layers using the POD method. Sci China Phys Mesh Astron, 2008, 51: 541–558CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cai W H, Li F C, Zhang H N, et al. Analysis of coherent structures in drag-reducing polymer solution flow based on proper orthogonal decomposition. Sci China Phys Mech Astron, 2012, 55: 854–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang J J, Feng L H, Xu C J. Experimental investigation on control of vortex shedding mode of a circular cylinder using synthetic jets placed at stagnation points. Sci China Tech Sci, 2013, 56: 158–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Borée J, Marc D, Bazile R, et al. On the behavior of a large scale tumbling vortex flow submitted to compression. European Series in Applied and Industrial Mathematics, 1999, 7: 56–65zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Borée J, Maurel S, Bazile R. Disruption of a compressed vortex. Phys Fluids. 2002, 14: 2543–2556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Erdil A, Kodal A, Aydin K. Decomposition of turbulent velocity fields in an SI engine. Flow, Turbulence Combust, 2002, 68: 91–110CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fogleman M A. Low-dimensional models of internal combustion engine flows using the proper orthogonal decomposition. Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2005Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fogleman M A, Lumley J, Rempfer D, et al. Application of the proper orthogonal decomposition to datasets of internal combustion engine flows. J Turbulence, 2004, 23: 1–18Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kapitza L, Imberdis O, Bensler H, et al. An experimental analysis of the turbulent structures generated by the intake port of a DISI-engine. Exp Fluids, 2010, 48: 265–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Raposo J, Hentschel W, Merzkirch W. Analysis of the dynamical behavior of coherent structures in in-cylinder flows of internal com bustion engines. In: In-Cylinder Flows of Internal Combustion Engines, Proc. 10th Int. Symp. on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, 2000Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen H, Reuss D L, Hung L S, et al. A practical guide for using proper orthogonal decomposition in engine research. Int J Engine Res, 2013, 14: 307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cosadia I, Borée J, Charnay G, et al. Cyclic variations of the swirling flow in a Diesel transparent engine. Exp Fluids, 2006, 41: 115–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cosadia I, Borée J, Dumont P. Coupling time-resolved PIV flow-fields and phase-invariant proper orthogonal decomposition for the description of the parameters space in a transparent Diesel engine. Exp Fluids, 2007, 43: 357–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Druault P, Guibert P, Alizon F. Use of proper orthogonal decomposition for time interpolation from PIV data. Exp Fluids, 2005, 39: 1009–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu K. Haworth D C. Development and Assessment of POD for Analysis of Turbulent Flow in Piston Engines. SAE Paper, 2011, 01: 0830Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abraham P S. Analyzing In-Cylinder Flow Variations in a Motored Spark Ignition Engine using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition. Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2013Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roudnitzky S, Druault P, Guibert P. Proper orthogonal decomposition of in-cylinder engine flow into mean component, coherent structures and random Gaussian fluctuations. J Turbulence, 2006, 7: 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vu T T, Guibert P. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis for cycle-to-cycle variations of engine flow: Effect of a control device in an inlet pipe. Exp Fluids, 2012: 52: 1519–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Druault P, Delville J, Bonnet J P. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of the mixing layer flow into coherent structures and turbulent Gaussian fluctuations. Compte Rendus Mecanique, 2005, 333: 824–829CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu D. Analysis of the in-cylinder flow and performance in SI engine with variable valve actuation. Dissertation for Master Degree. Tianjin: Tianjin University, 2008Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang G. Characterization of in-cylinder flow in a DISI engine with variable valve lift. Dissertation for Master Degree. Tianjin: Tianjin University, 2010Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang T, Liu D, Zhang X, et al. Study of the in-cylinder flow characteristics of spark ignition engine under variable valve lift. Trans CSICE. 2008, 26: 420–428Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    German M. Turbulence: The filtering approach. J Fluid Mech. 1992, 238: 325–336CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lilly D K. A proposed modification of the Germano subgrid-scale closure method. Phys Fluids A, 1992, 4: 633–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sirovich L. Turbulence and the dynamics of coherent structures. Part I: Coherent structures. Q Appl Math, 1987, 45: 561–571zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Berkooz G, Holmes P, Lumley J L. The proper orthogonal decomposition in the analysis of turbulent flows. Ann Rev Fluid Mech, 1993, 25: 539–575CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Manhart M, Wengle H. A spatiotemporal decomposition of a fully inhomogeneous turbulent flow field. Theor Comput Fluid Dyn, 1993, 5: 223–242CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • WenJin Qin
    • 1
  • MaoZhao Xie
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ming Jia
    • 1
  • TianYou Wang
    • 2
  • DaMing Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Energy and Power EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of EnginesTianjin UniversityTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations