Advertisement

Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 12, pp 1946–1991 | Cite as

Review of Chinese atmospheric science research over the past 70 years: Synoptic meteorology

  • Zhiyong MengEmail author
  • Fuqing Zhang
  • Dehai Luo
  • Zhemin Tan
  • Juan Fang
  • Jianhua Sun
  • Xueshun Shen
  • Yunji Zhang
  • Shuguang Wang
  • Wei Han
  • Kun Zhao
  • Lei Zhu
  • Yongyun Hu
  • Huiwen Xue
  • Yaping Ma
  • Lijuan Zhang
  • Ji Nie
  • Ruilin Zhou
  • Sa Li
  • Hongjun Liu
  • Yuning Zhu
Review

Abstract

Synoptic meteorology is a branch of meteorology that uses synoptic weather observations and charts for the diagnosis, study, and forecasting of weather. Weather refers to the specific state of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface during a short period of time. The spatial distribution of meteorological elements in the atmosphere can be represented by a variety of transient weather phenomena, which are caused by weather systems of different spatial and temporal scales. Weather is closely related to people’s life, and its development and evolution have always been the focus of atmospheric scientific research and operation. The development of synoptic meteorology is closely related to the development of observation systems, dynamical theories and numerical models. In China, observation networks have been built since the early 1950s. Up to now, a comprehensive meteorological observation system based on ground, air and space has been established. In particular, the development of a new generation of dense radar networks, the development of the Fengyun satellite series and the implementation of a series of large field experiments have brought our understanding of weather from large-scale environment to thermal dynamics, cloud microphysical structure and evolution characteristics of meso and micro-scale weather systems. The development of observation has also promoted the development of theory, numerical model and simulation. In the early days, China mainly used foreign numerical models. Lately, China has developed numerical model systems with independent intellectual property rights. Based on the results of high-resolution numerical simulations, in-depth understanding of the initiation and evolution mechanism and predictability of weather at different scales has been obtained. Synoptic meteorology has gradually changed from an initially independent development to a multidisciplinary approach, and the interaction between weather and the change of climate and environment has become a hot and frontier topic in atmospheric science. This paper reviews the important scientific and technological achievements made in China over the past 70 years in the fields of synoptic meteorology based on the literatures in China and abroad, from six aspects respectively including atmospheric dynamics, synoptic-scale weather, typhoon and tropical weather, severe convective weather, numerical weather prediction and data assimilation, weather and climate, atmospheric physics and atmospheric environment.

Keywords

Atmospheric sciences Synoptic meteorology Weather 70-year progresses 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thank Tzung-May FU from Southern University of Science and Technology for her very helpful advice on section 7. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41425018, 41675045, 41875066, 41675108, 41875051), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFC1501601, 2017YFC1501904), the Special Program on the Monitoring, Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disasters (Grant No. 2018YFC1506702).

References

  1. Alexander L V, Zhang X, Peterson T C, Caesar J, Gleason B, Klein Tank A M G, Haylock M, Collins D, Trewin B, Rahimzadeh F, Tagipour A, Rupa Kumar K, Revadekar J, Griffiths G, Vincent L, Stephenson D B, Burn J, Aguilar E, Brunet M, Taylor M, New M, Zhai P, Rusticucci M, Vazquez-Aguirre J L. 2006. Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J Geophys Res, 111: D05109Google Scholar
  2. Arnold V I. 1965. Conditions for nonlinear stability of stationary plane curvilinear flows of an ideal fluid. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR, 2: 975–978Google Scholar
  3. Bai L Q, Meng Z Y, Huang Y P, Zhang Y J, Niu S Z, Su T. 2019a. Convection initiation resulting from the interaction between a quasistationary dryline and intersecting gust fronts: A case study. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 124: 2379–2396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bai L Q, Meng Z Y, Huang L, Yan L, Li Z, Mai X, Huang Y, Yao D, Wang X. 2017. An integrated damage, visual, and radar analysis of the 2015 Foshan, Guangdong EF3 tornado in China produced by the landfalling Typhoon Mujigae (2015). Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 98: 2619–2640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bai L Q, Meng Z Y, Sueki K, Chen G, Zhou R. 2019b. Climatology of tropical cyclone tornadoes in China from 2006 to 2018. Sci China Earth Sci, 62,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-019-9536-1
  6. Bao M, Hartmann D L. 2014. The response to MJO-like forcing in a nonlinear shallow-water model. Geophys Res Lett, 41: 1322–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berggren R, Bolin B, Rossby C G. 1949. An aerological study of zonal motion, its perturbations and break-down. Tellus, 1: 14–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blumen W, Washington W M. 1973. Atmospheric dynamics and numerical weather prediction in the People’s Republic of China 1949–1966. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 54: 502–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan J, Liang X. 2003. Convective asymmetries associated with tropical cyclone landfall. Part I: f-plane simulations. J Atmos Sci, 60: 1560–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chao J P. 1980. The gravitational wave in non-uniform stratification atmosphere and its preliminary application for the prediction of heavy rainfall (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 4: 230–235Google Scholar
  11. Charney J G. 1947. The dynamics of long waves in a baroclinic westerly current. J Meteorol, 4: 136–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charney J G, Drazin P G. 1961. Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere. J Geophys Res, 66: 83–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charney J G, FjÖrtoft R, Neumann J V. 1950. Numerical integration of the barotropic vorticity equation. Tellus, 2: 237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Charney J, Halem M, Jastrow R. 1969. Use of incomplete historical data to infer the present state of the atmosphere. J Atmos Sci, 26: 1160–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen C G, Li X L, Shen X S, Xiao F. 2014. Global shallow water models based on multi-moment constrained finite volume method and three quasi-uniform spherical grids. J Comput Phys, 271: 191–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen C G, Li X L, Shen X S, Xiao F. 2015. A high-order conservative collocation scheme and its application to global shallow-water equations. Geosci Model Dev, 8: 221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen D H, Shen X S. 2006. Recent progress on GRAPES research and application (in Chinese). J Appl Meteor Sci, 17: 774–777Google Scholar
  18. Chen D H, Xue J S, Yang X S, Zhang H L, Shen X S, Hu J L, Wang Y, Ji L R, Chen J B. 2008. New generation of multi-scale NWP system (GRAPES): General scientific design. Chin Sci Bull, 53: 3433–3445Google Scholar
  19. Chen G H, Chou C. 2014. Joint contribution of multiple equatorial waves to tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific. Mon Weather Rev, 142: 79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen G M, Zhang X P, Bai L N, Wan R J. 2019. Verification on forecasts of tropical cyclones over Western North Pacific and South China Sea in 2017 (in Chinese). Meteorol Mon, 45: 577–586Google Scholar
  21. Chen G T J. 1983. Observational aspects of the Mei-yu phenomenon in subtropical China. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 61: 306–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen G X, Yang J, Bao Q, Wang W C. 2018. Intraseasonal responses of the East Asia summer rainfall to anthropogenic aerosol climate forcing. Clim Dyn, 51: 3985–3998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen H P, Sun J Q, Chen X L, Zhou W. 2012. CGCM projections of heavy rainfall events in China. Int J Climatol, 32: 441–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen H P. 2013. Projected change in extreme rainfall events in China by the end of the 21st century using CMIP5 models. Chin Sci Bull, 58: 743–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen J Y, Cai X H, Wang H Y, Kang L, Zhang H S, Song Y, Zhu H, Zheng W, Li F J. 2018. Tornado climatology of China. Int J Climatol, 38: 2478–2489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen L S, Ding Y H. 1979. Introduction to Typhoons in the Western Pacific (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 105Google Scholar
  27. Chen M X, Wang Y C, Gao F, Xiao X. 2014. Diurnal evolution and distribution of warm-season convective storms in different prevailing wind regimes over contiguous North China. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 119: 2742–2763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen M, Gao F, Kong R, et al. 2009. A system for nowcasting convective storm in support of 2008 Olympics. World Meteorological Organization Symposium on Nowcasting and Very Short Term Forecasting. Whistler, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen Q S. 1963. On the formation and the destruction of thermal wind in a simple baroclinic atmosphere (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 33: 153–161Google Scholar
  30. Chen T J, Chang C P. 1980. The structure and vorticity budget of an early summer monsoon trough (Mei-yu) over southeastern China and Japan. Mon Weather Rev, 108: 942–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen W, Graf H F, Takahashi M. 2002. Observed interannual oscillations of planetary wave forcing in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Geophys Res Lett, 29: 30–1-34-4Google Scholar
  32. Chen W, Huang R H. 2005. The three-dimensional propagation of quasistationary planetary waves in the Northern Hemisphere winter and its interannual variations (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 29: 137–146Google Scholar
  33. Chen W, Takahashi M, Graf H F. 2003. Interannual variations of stationary planetary wave activity in the northern winter troposphere and stratosphere and their relations to NAM and SST. J Geophys Res, 108: 4797Google Scholar
  34. Chen X C, Zhang F Q, Zhao K. 2016. Diurnal variations of the land-sea breeze and its related precipitation over South China. J Atmos Sci, 73: 4793–4815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chen X C, Zhang F Q, Zhao K. 2017. Influence of monsoonal wind speed and moisture content on intensity and diurnal variations of the Mei-Yu season coastal rainfall over South China. J Atmos Sci, 74: 2835–2856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chen X C, Zhao K, Xue M, Zhou B, Huang X, Xu W. 2015. Radarobserved diurnal cycle and propagation of convection over the Pearl River Delta during Mei-Yu season. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 120: 12557–12575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chen X C, Zhao K, Xue M. 2014. Spatial and temporal characteristics of warm season convection over Pearl River Delta region, China, based on 3 years of operational radar data. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 119: 12447–12465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chen Y, Zhao C S, Zhang Q, Deng Z Z, Huang M Y, Ma X C. 2009. Aircraft study of mountain chimney effect of Beijing, China. J Geophys Res, 114: D08306Google Scholar
  39. Chou J F. 1974. The use of past data in numerical weather forecasting (in Chinese). Sci China Ser A, 4: 635–644Google Scholar
  40. Chou J F. 2007. An innovative road to numerical weather prediction — From initial value problem to inverse problem (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 65: 673–682Google Scholar
  41. Cong C H, Chen L S, Lei X T, Li Y. 2012. A study on the mechanism of the tropical cyclone remote precipitation (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 70: 717–727Google Scholar
  42. Dai G K, Mu M, Jiang Z N. 2016. Relationships between optimal precursors triggering NAO onset and optimally growing initial errors during NAO prediction. J Atmos Sci, 73: 293–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Di D, Li J, Han W, Bai W, Wu C, Menzel W P. 2018. Enhancing the fast radiative transfer model for FengYun-4 GIIRS by using local training profiles. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 123: 12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ding A J, Fu C B, Yang X Q, Sun J N, Petäjä T, Kerminen V M, Wang T, Xie Y, Herrmann E, Zheng L F, Nie W, Liu Q, Wei X L, Kulmala M. 2013. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: A case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China. Atmos Chem Phys, 13: 10545–10554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ding L T, Lu S, Cheng J. 2018. Weak-norm posterior contraction rate of the 4DVAR method for linear severely ill-posed problems. J Complex, 46: 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ding Y H. 1993. Study on the Persistent Heavy Rainstorm in the Yangtze-Huaihe River Basin in 1991 (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 225Google Scholar
  47. Ding Y H. 2015. On the study of the unprecedented heavy rainfall in Henan Province during 4–8 August 1975: Review and assessment (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 73: 411–424Google Scholar
  48. Ding Y H, Cai Z Y, Li J S. 1978. A case study on the excessively severe rainstrom in Honan province, early in August, 1975 (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 2: 276–289Google Scholar
  49. Ding Y H, Li H Z, Zhang M L, Cai Z Y. 1982. A study on the genesis conditions of squall-line in China (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 6: 18–27Google Scholar
  50. Du Y, Chen Y L, Zhang Q H. 2015a. Numerical simulations of the boundary layer jet off the southeastern coast of China. Mon Weather Rev, 143: 1212–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Du Y, Rotunno R, Zhang Q H. 2015b. Analysis of WRF-simulated diurnal boundary layer winds in Eastern China using a simple 1D model. J Atmos Sci, 72: 714–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Du Y, Zhang Q H, Chen Y, Zhao Y, Wang X. 2014. Numerical simulations of spatial distributions and diurnal variations of low-level jets in China during early summer. J Clim, 27: 5747–5767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Du Y, Zhang Q H, Yue Y, Yang Y. 2012. Characteristics of low-level jets in Shanghai during the 2008–2009 warm seasons as inferred from wind profiler radar data. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 90: 891–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Du Y, Rotunno R. 2014. A simple analytical model of the nocturnal low-level jet over the Great Plains of the United States. J Atmos Sci, 71: 3674–3683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Du Y, Chen G. 2018. Heavy rainfall associated with double low-level jets over Southern China. Part I: Ensemble-based analysis. Mon Weather Rev, 146: 3827–3844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Du Y, Chen G. 2019. Heavy rainfall associated with double low-level jets over Southern China. Part II: Convection initiation. Mon Weather Rev, 147: 543–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Duan W S, Huo Z H. 2016. An approach to generating mutually independent initial perturbations for ensemble forecasts: Orthogonal conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations. J Atmos Sci, 73: 997–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Eady E T. 1949. Long waves and cyclone waves. Tellus, 1: 33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Emanuel K A, David Neelin J, Bretherton C S. 1994. On large-scale circulations in convecting atmospheres. Q J R Met Soc, 120: 1111–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fan J W, Leung L R, Rosenfeld D, Chen Q, Li Z Q, Zhang J Q, Yan H R. 2013. Microphysical effects determine macrophysical response for aerosol impacts on deep convective clouds. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110: E4581–E4590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fang J, Zhang F Q. 2010. Initial development and genesis of Hurricane Dolly (2008). J Atmos Sci, 67: 655–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fang J, Zhang F Q. 2011. Evolution of multiscale vortices in the development of Hurricane Dolly (2008). J Atmos Sci, 68: 103–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fang J, Zhang F Q. 2016. Contribution of tropical waves to the formation of supertyphoon Megi (2010). J Atmos Sci, 73: 4387–4405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fu C B, Li D. 2014. Trends in the different grades of precipitation over South China during 1960–2010 and the possible link with anthropogenic aerosols. Adv Atmos Sci, 31: 480–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fu S Z, Deng X, Li Z, Xue H W. 2017. Radiative effect of black carbon aerosol on a squall line case in North China. Atmos Res, 197: 407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gao J D. 2013. Mr. Yu Fanfan’s academic thoughts and memories on data assimilation (in Chinese). Adv Meteorol Sci Technol, 3: 76–79Google Scholar
  67. Gao S T. 1987. The dynamic action of the disposition of the fluid fields and the topography on the formation of the south-west vortex (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 11: 263–271Google Scholar
  68. Gao S T, Sun S Q. 1984. The forming of subsynoptic scale low-level jet stream (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 8: 179–188Google Scholar
  69. Gao S Z, Meng Z Y, Zhang F Q, Bosart L F. 2009. Observational analysis of heavy rainfall mechanisms associated with severe tropical storm Bilis (2006) after its landfall. Mon Weather Rev, 137: 1881–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gao Y D, Wan Q L, He J H. 2011. An improved method for the three dimensional variational assimilation of the radar seeable velocity and its numerical experiments (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 69: 631–643Google Scholar
  71. Gong Y T, Li Y, Zhang D L. 2018. A statistical study of unusual tracks of tropical cyclones near Taiwan Island. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 57: 193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gray W M. 1998. The formation of tropical cyclones. Meteorl Atmos Phys, 67: 37–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gu J F, Tan Z M, Qiu X. 2015. Effects of vertical wind shear on inner-core thermodynamics of an idealized simulated tropical cyclone. J Atmos Sci, 72: 511–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gu J F, Tan Z M, Qiu X. 2016. Quadrant-dependent evolution of low-level tangential wind of a tropical cyclone in the shear flow. J Atmos Sci, 73: 1159–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gu J F, Tan Z M, Qiu X. 2018. The evolution of vortex tilt and vertical motion of tropical cyclones in directional shear flows. J Atmos Sci, 75: 3565–3578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gu J F, Tan Z M, Qiu X. 2019. Intensification variability of tropical cyclones in directional shear flows: Vortex tilt-convection coupling. J Atmos Sci, 76: 1827–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gu W, Wang L, Hu Z Z, Hu K M, Li Y. 2018. Interannual variations of the first rainy season precipitation over south China. J Clim, 31: 623–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gu Z C. 1949. An example of analysis of the period of depression in southwestern China (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 20: 61–63Google Scholar
  79. Gu Z C. 1958a. On the equivalency of formulations of weather forecasting as an initial value problem and as an “evolution” problem (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 29: 93–98Google Scholar
  80. Gu Z C. 1958b. On the utilization of past data in numerical weather forecasting (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 29: 176–183Google Scholar
  81. Guo J P, Deng M J, Fan J W, Li Z Q, Chen Q, Zhai P M, Dai Z J, Li X W. 2014. Precipitation and air pollution at mountain and plain stations in northern China: Insights gained from observations and modeling. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 119: 4793–4807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Chen M, Gao F, Kong R, et al. 2009. A system for nowcasting convective storm in support of 2008 Olympics. World Meteorological Organization Symposium on Nowcasting and Very Short Term Forecasting. Whistler, Canada Geophys Res-Atmos, 121: 6472–6488Google Scholar
  83. Guo J P, Liu H, Li Z Q, Rosenfeld D, Jiang M J, Xu W X, Jiang J H, He J, Chen D D, Min M, Zhai P M. 2018. Aerosol-induced changes in the vertical structure of precipitation: A perspective of TRMM precipitation radar. Atmos Chem Phys, 18: 13329–13343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Guo X L, Fu D H, Guo X, Zhang C M. 2014. A case study of aerosol impacts on summer convective clouds and precipitation over northern China. Atmos Res, 142: 142–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Guo X R, Zhang Y L, Yan Z H, Zheng G A, Zhu Q. 1995. The limited area analysis and forecast system and its operational application (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 53: 306–317Google Scholar
  86. Guo X, Tan Z M. 2017. Tropical cyclone fullness: A new concept for interpreting storm intensity. Geophys Res Lett, 44: 4324–4331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Guo Y P, Tan Z M. 2018. Westward migration of tropical cyclone rapid-intensification over the Northwestern Pacific during short duration El Niño. Nat Commun, 9: 1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Han L, Wang H Q, Tan X G, Lin Y J. 2007. Review on development of radar based storm identification, tracking and forecasting (in Chinese). Meteorol Mon, 33: 3–10Google Scholar
  89. Han W. 2003. Theoretical and applied research on variational data assimilation (in Chinese). Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Nanjing: PLA University of Science and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  90. Han W. 2014. Constrained variational bias correction for satellite radiance assimilation. In: International TOVS Study ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  91. Han W, Bormann N. 2016. Constrained adaptive bias correction for satellite radiances assimilation in the ECMWF 4D-Var system. In: ECMWF Technical Memorandum 783Google Scholar
  92. Han W, McNally A P. 2010. The 4D-Var assimilation of ozone-sensitive infrared radiances measured by IASI. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 136: 2025–2037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Han W, Xue J S, Xu J M, Zhang Q S. 2006. Assimilation of FY2C AMV in GRAPES. Eighth International Winds Workshop, 24–28 April, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  94. Han W, Xue J. 2007. Adaptive tuning of background error and satellite radiance observation error for operational variational assimilation. Proc SPIE, 6790: 679044–1-679044-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Han Y, Khouider B. 2010. Convectively coupled waves in a sheared environment. J Atmos Sci, 67: 2913–2942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hao M, Zhang H, Tao S W, Gong J D. 2013. Application of variational quality control to regional GRAPES-3DVAR (in Chinese). Plateau Meteorol, 32: 122–132Google Scholar
  97. He J H, Wu Z W, Jiang Z H, Miao C S, Han G R. 2006. The “climate effect” of the northeast cold vortex and its impact on the plum rains (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull, 51: 2803–2809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. He L F, Zhou Q L, Chen Y, Tang W Y, Zhang T, Lan Y. 2011. Introduction and examination of potential forecast for strong convective weather at national level (in Chinese). Meteorol Mon, 37: 777–784Google Scholar
  99. He M Y, Liu H B, Wang B, Zhang D L. 2016. A modeling study of a low-level jet along the Yun-Gui plateau in South China. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 55: 41–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. He Z W, Zhang Q H, Bai L Q, Meng Z Y. 2017. Characteristics of mesoscale convective systems in central East China and their reliance on atmospheric circulation patterns. Int J Climatol, 37: 3276–3290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hsieh Y P. 1949. An investigation of a slected cold vortex over North America. J Meteorol, 6: 401–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hu B W. 1997. The band of CISK coupled with low level “moisture fronts” and the genesis of warm shear line-type Meiyu fronts (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 21: 679–686Google Scholar
  103. Huang L, Luo Y L, Zhang D L. 2018. The relationship between anomalous presummer extreme rainfall over the South China and synoptic disturbances. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 123: 3395–3413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Huang R H, Li W J. 1988. Influence of heat source anomaly over the western tropical Pacific on the subtropical high over East Asia and its physical mechanism (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 12: 107–116Google Scholar
  105. Huang R, Gambo K. 1982a. The response of a hemispheric multi-level model atmosphere to forcing by topography and stationary heat sources: (I) Forcing by topography. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 60: 78–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Huang R, Gambo K. 1982b. The response of a hemispheric multi-level model atmosphere to forcing by topography and stationary heat sources: (II) Forcing by stationary heat sources and forcing by topography and stationary heat sources. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 60: 93–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Huang R, Gambo K. 1984. On other wave guide in stationary planetary wave propagations in winter Northern Hemisphere. Sci China Ser B-Chem, 27: 610–624Google Scholar
  108. Huang S X, Han W, Wu R S. 2004. Theoretical analyses and numerical experiments of variational assimilation for one-dimensional ocean temperature model with techniques in inverse problems. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 47: 630–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Huang T S, Li Z G, Bao C L, Yu Z H, Chen H Y, Yu S H, Li J H, Peng B X, Sun S Q, Zhu Q G, Liang B Q, Zhuang Y M, Fang Z Y, Wang L M. 1986. Heavy Rainfall in the Pre Flood Season in South China (in Chinese). Guangzhou: Guangdong Science and Technology Press. 244Google Scholar
  110. Huang W, Duan Y H, Xue J S, Chen D H. 2007. Operational experiments and its performance analysis of the tropical cyclone numerical model (GRAPESTCM) (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 65: 578–587Google Scholar
  111. Huang X, Ding A, Liu L, Liu Q, Ding K, Niu X, Nie W, Xu Z, Chi X, Wang M, Sun J, Guo W, Fu C. 2016. Effects of aerosol-radiation interaction on precipitation during biomass-burning season in East China. Atmos Chem Phys, 16: 10063–10082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Jaw J J. 1937. Zur Thermodynamiu der Paeat, Gerundstromung, Abgedruckt aus Veroffentlichungen des Meteorologischen, Institutes der Universitat Berlin, Bd, II, Ht. 5Google Scholar
  113. Jaw J J. 1946. The formation of the semi-permanent center of action in relation to the horizontal solenoidal field. J Meteorol, 3: 103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ji L R, Shen R J, Chen Y X. 1984. Numerical experiment on dynamic influence of Tibetan Plateau in summer (in Chinese). In: Editing Group of the Tibetan Plateau Meteorological Science Experiment Collection. The Tibetan Plateau Meteorological Science Experiment Collection (Part II). Beijing: Science Press. 236–244Google Scholar
  115. Ji L, Tibaldi S. 1983. Numerical simulation of a case of blocking: The effect of orography and land-sea contrast. Mon Weather Rev, 111: 2068–2086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Jiang L J, Li G P, Mu L, Kong L. 2014. Structural analysis of heavy precipitation caused by southwest vortex based on TRMM data (in Chinese). Plateau Meteorol, 33: 1457–1467Google Scholar
  117. Jiang M J, Li Z Q, Wan B C, Cribb M. 2016. Impact of aerosols on precipitation from deep convective clouds in Eastern China. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 121: 9607–9620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Jiang Z N, Mu M. 2009. A comparison study of the methods of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations and singular vectors in ensemble prediction. Adv Atmos Sci, 26: 465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kuo H L. 1949. Dynamic instability of two-dimensional nondivergent flow in a barotropic atmosphere. J Meteorol, 6: 105–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lan W R, Zhu J, Xue M, Gao J D, Lei T. 2010a. Storm-scale ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation experiments using simulated Doppler radar data. Part I: Perfect model tests (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 34: 640–652Google Scholar
  121. Lan W R, Zhu J, Xue M, Gao J D, Lei T. 2010b. Storm-scale ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation experiments using simulated Doppler radar data. Part II: Imperfect model tests (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 34: 737–753Google Scholar
  122. Lau K M, Peng L. 1987. Origin of low-frequency (intraseasonal) oscillations in the tropical atmosphere. Part I: Basic theory. J Atmos Sci, 44: 950–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lee S S, Guo J P, Li Z Q. 2016. Delaying precipitation by air pollution over the Pearl River Delta: 2. Model simulations. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 121: 11739–11760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lei X T, Li Y P, Yu R L, Li H, Tang J, Duan Z Q, Zheng Y X, Fang P Z, Zhao B K, Zeng Z H, Huang W, Bao X W, Yu Z F, Chen G M, Ma L M, Luo J Y, Zhang S, Lin L M. 2019. A new generation of regional air-seawave coupled typhoon prediction system (in Chinese). Acta Oceanol Sin, 41: 123–134Google Scholar
  125. Li C Y, Gu W. 2010. An analyzing study of the anomalous activity of blocking high over the Ural Mountains in January 2008 (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 34: 865–874Google Scholar
  126. Li C Y. 1985. South Asian summer monsoon ridges and troughs and tropical cyclone activities, and mobile CISK waves (in Chinese). Sci China Ser B, 15: 668–675Google Scholar
  127. Li C Y. 1990. Dynamical study on 30–50 days oscillation in the tropical atmosphere outside Equator (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 14: 83–92Google Scholar
  128. Li J, Liu G Q. 2016. Direct assimilation of Chinese FY-3C Microwave Temperature Sounder-2 radiances in the global GRAPES system. Atmos Meas Tech, 9: 3095–3113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Li L, Zhang Y C. 2014. Effects of different configurations of the East Asian subtropical and polar front jets on precipitation during the Mei-Yu season. J Clim, 27: 6660–6672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Li M C. 1979. Stages of large-scale atmospheric movement (in Chinese). Sci China Ser A, 22: 509–607Google Scholar
  131. Li M C. 1982. Potential vortex adaptation process in baroclinic atmosphere (in Chinese). Sci China Ser B, 25: 473–481Google Scholar
  132. Li M X, Zhang Q H, Zhang F Q. 2016. Hail day frequency trends and associated atmospheric circulation patterns over China during 1960–2012. J Clim, 29: 7027–7044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Li S L, Ji L R, Ni Y Q. 2001. The atmospheric circulation continues to be abnormal in the Ural region in summer (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull, 46: 753–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Li T, Wang L, Peng M, Wang B, Zhang C, Lau W, Kuo H C. 2018. A Paper on the tropical intraseasonal oscillation published in 1963 in a Chinese Journal. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 99: 1765–1779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Li X F, Zhang Q H, Xue H W. 2017. The role of initial cloud condensation nuclei concentration in hail using the WRF NSSL 2-moment micro-physics scheme. Adv Atmos Sci, 34: 1106–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Li X F, Zhang Q H, Zou T, Lin J P, Kong H, Ren Z H. 2018. Climatology of hail frequency and size in China, 1980–2015. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 57: 875–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Li X S, Luo Y L, Guan Z Y. 2014. The persistent heavy rainfall over southern China in June 2010: Evolution of synoptic systems and the effects of the Tibetan Plateau heating. J Meteorol Res, 28: 540–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Li X Z. 1935. A study of cold waves in East Asia. In: Offprints of Scientific Works in Modern China—Meteorology (1919–1949) (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 35–173Google Scholar
  139. Li Z J, Zhao S X. 1996. Structure and dynamics of cold fronts observed in East Asia in spring. Part I: Structure of strong spring cold fronts (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 20: 662–672Google Scholar
  140. Li Z J, Zhao S X. 1997. A structure and dynamics of cold fronts observed in East Asia during spring. Part II: Dynamics of strong spring cold front (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 21: 91–98Google Scholar
  141. Li Z, Lau W K, Ramanathan V, Wu G, Ding Y, Manoj M G, Liu J, Qian Y, Li J, Zhou T, Fan J, Rosenfeld D, Ming Y, Wang Y, Huang J, Wang B, Xu X, Lee S, Cribb M, Zhang F, Yang X, Zhao C, Takemura T, Wang K, Xia X, Yin Y, Zhang H, Guo J, Zhai P M, Sugimoto N, Babu S S, Brasseur G P. 2016. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia. Rev Geophys, 54: 866–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Liang J, Wu L G, Zong H J. 2014. Idealized numerical simulations of tropical cyclone formation associated with monsoon gyres. Adv Atmos Sci, 31: 305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Liang J, Wu L G. 2015. Sudden Track changes of tropical cyclones in monsoon gyres: Full-physics, idealized numerical experiments. J Atmos Sci, 72: 1307–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Liang P, Ding Y H. 2017. The long-term variation of extreme heavy precipitation and its link to urbanization effects in Shanghai during 1916–2014. Adv Atmos Sci, 34: 321–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Liang X. 2007. An integrating velocity-azimuth process single-Doppler radar wind retrieval method. J Atmos Ocean Technol, 24: 658–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Liao D X. 1990. Progress of NWP in China in the past decade (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 48: 17–25Google Scholar
  147. Lin Y B, Tang M M, Lu S E, Bao C L. 1988. Synoptics (in Chinese). Nanjing: Nanjing University Press. 375Google Scholar
  148. Lin L, Wang Z L, Xu Y Y, Fu Q. 2016. Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Geophys Res Lett, 43: 9860–9868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lin L, Xu Y Y, Wang Z L, Diao C R, Dong W J, Xie S P. 2018. Changes in extreme rainfall over India and China attributed to regional aerosol-cloud interaction during the late 20th century rapid industrialization. Geophys Res Lett, 45: 7857–7865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Liu H B, Li L J, Wang B. 2012. Low-level jets over southeast China: Warm season climatology for the summer of 2003. Atmos Ocean Sci Lett, 5: 394–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Liu S H, Liu Z X, Li J, Wang Y C, Ma Y J, Sheng L, Liu H P, Liang F M, Xin G J, Wang J H. 2009. Numerical simulation for the coupling effect of local atmospheric circulations over the area of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 52: 382–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Liu X, Luo Y L, Guan Z Y, Zhang D L. 2018. An extreme rainfall event in coastal South China during SCMREX-2014: Formation and roles of rainband and echo trainings. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 123: 9256–9278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Liu Y M, Liu H, Liu P. 1999a. The effect of spatially nonuniform heating on the formation and variation of subtropical high Part II: Land surface sensible heating and east Pacific subtropical high (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 57: 385–396Google Scholar
  154. Liu Y M, Wu G X, Liu H, Liu P. 1999b. The effect of spatially nonuniform heating on the formation and variation of subtropical high Part III: Condensation heating and south Asia high and western Pacific subtropical high (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 57: 525–538Google Scholar
  155. Liu Y M, Wu G X, Yu R C, Liu X. 2001. Thermal adaptation, overshooting, dispersion, and subtropical anticyclone Part II: Horizontal inhomogeneous heating and energy dispersion (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 25: 317–328Google Scholar
  156. Liu Y Z, Gong J D, Zhang L, Chen Q Y. 2019. Influence of linearized physical processes on the GRAPES 4DVAR (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 77: 196–209Google Scholar
  157. Liu Y Z, Zhang L, Jin Z Y. 2017. The optimization of GRAPES global tangent linear model and adjoint model (in Chinese). J Appl Meteorol Sci, 28: 62–71Google Scholar
  158. Liu Y Z, Zhang L, Lian Z H. 2018. Conjugate gradient algorithm in the four-dimensional variational data assimilation system in GRAPES. J Meteorol Res, 32: 974–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Liu Y, Mu M. 1996. Nonlinear stability theorem for Eady’s Model of quasigeostrophic baroclinic flow. J Atmos Sci, 53: 1459–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Liu Y, Sun J, Yang B. 2009. The effects of black carbon and sulphate aerosols in China regions on East Asia monsoons. Tellus B-Chem Phys Meteor, 61: 642–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Liu Y, Tan Z M, Wu Z. 2019. Noninstantaneous Wave-CISK for the Interaction between Convective Heating and Low-Level Moisture Convergence in the Tropics. J Atmos Sci, 76: 2083–2101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Liu Y, Xue J. 2014. Assimilation of global navigation satellite radio occultation observations in GRAPES: Operational implementation. J Meteorol Res, 28: 1061–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Liu Z, Yim S H L, Wang C, Lau N C. 2018. The impact of the aerosol direct radiative forcing on deep convection and air quality in the Pearl River Delta region. Geophys Res Lett, 45: 4410–4418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lu R Y, Huang R H. 1996. The transformed meridional circulation equation and its application to the diagnostic analysis of the blocking high formation (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 20: 138–148Google Scholar
  165. Luo D H. 2000. Planetary-scale baroclinic envelope Rossby solitons in a two-layer model and their interaction with synoptic-scale eddies. Dyn Atmos Oceans, 32: 27–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Luo D H. 2005. A barotropic envelope Rossby soliton model for block-eddy interaction. Part I: Effect of topography. J Atmos Sci, 62: 5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Luo D H, Cha J, Zhong L H, Dai A G. 2014. A nonlinear multiscale interaction model for atmospheric blocking: The eddy-blocking matching mechanism. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 140: 1785–1808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Luo D H, Ji L R. 1989. A theory of atmospheric blockage (in Chinese). Sci China Ser B, 32: 103–112Google Scholar
  169. Luo D H, Lupo A R, Wan H. 2007. Dynamics of eddy-driven low-frequency dipole modes. Part I: A simple model of North Atlantic Oscillations. J Atmos Sci, 64: 3–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Luo Y L, Chen Y R X. 2015. Investigation of the predictability and physical mechanisms of an extreme-rainfall-producing mesoscale convective system along the Meiyu front in East China: An ensemble approach. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 120: 10593–10618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Luo Y L, Gong Y, Zhang D L. 2014. Initiation and organizational modes of an extreme-rain-producing mesoscale convective system along a Mei-Yu front in East China. Mon Weather Rev, 142: 203–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Luo Y L, Wang H, Zhang R H, Qian W M, Luo Z Z. 2013. Comparison of rainfall characteristics and convective properties of monsoon precipitation systems over South China and the Yangtze and Huai River basin. J Clim, 26: 110–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Luo Y L, Wang Y J, Wang H Y, Zheng Y, Morrison H. 2010. Modeling convective-stratiform precipitation processes on a Mei-Yu front with the Weather Research and Forecasting model: Comparison with observations and sensitivity to cloud microphysics parameterizations. J Geophys Res, 115: D18117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Luo Y L, Xia R, Chan J C L. 2019. Characteristics, physical mechanisms, and prediction of pre-summer rainfall in South China: Research progress during the past decade. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, doi:  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2020-002
  175. Luo Y L, Zhang R, Wan Q, Wang B, Wong W K, Hu Z, Jou B J D, Lin Y, Johnson R J, Chang C P, Zhu Y J, Zhang X, Wang H, Xia R, Ma J, Zhang D L, Gao M, Zhang Y J, Liu X, Chen Y R X, Huang H, Bao X H, Ruan Z, Cui Z H, Meng Z Y, Sun J X, Wu M W, Wang H Y, Peng X D, Qian W M, Zhao K, Xiao Y J. 2017. The Southern China Monsoon Rainfall Experiment (SCMREX). Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 98: 999–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Luo Y, Liang X D, Chen M X. 2014. Improvement of radial wind data assimilation of single Doppler radar (in Chinese). J Meteorol Sci, 34: 620–628Google Scholar
  177. Ma S H, Chen D H. 2018. Analysis of performance of regional typhoon model in national meteorological center (in Chinese). J Trop Meteorol, 34: 451–459Google Scholar
  178. Ma X L, Zhuang Z R, Xue J S, Lu W S. 2009. Development of 3-D variational data assimilation system forthe nonhydrostatic numerical weather prediction model-GRAPES (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 67: 50–60Google Scholar
  179. Madden R A, Julian P R. 1971. Detection of a 40–50 Day Oscillation in the Zonal Wind in the Tropical Pacific. J Atmos Sci, 28: 702–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Madden R A, Julian P R. 1972. Description of global-scale circulation cells in the tropics with a 40–50 day period. J Atmos Sci, 29: 1109–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Matsuno T. 1966. Quasi-geostrophic motions in the equatorial area. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 44: 25–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Meng Z Y, Xu X D, Chen L S. 1998. Mechanism of the impact of the cyclone system induced by the Taiwan island topography on tropical cyclone unusual motion (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 2: 156–168Google Scholar
  183. Meng Z Y, Bai L Q, Zhang M R, Wu Z F, Li Z H, Pu M J, Zheng Y G, Wang X H, Yao D, Xue M, Zhao K, Li Z M, Peng S Q, Li L Y. 2018. The deadliest tornado (ef4) in the past 40 years in China. Weather Forecast, 33: 693–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Meng Z Y, Yan D C, Zhang Y J. 2013. General features of squall lines in East China. Mon Weather Rev, 141: 1629–1647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Meng Z Y, Yao D, Bai L Q, Zheng Y G, Xue M, Zhang X L, Zhao K, Tian F Y, Wang M J. 2016. Wind estimation around the shipwreck of Oriental Star based on field damage surveys and radar observations. Chin Sci Bull, 61: 330–337Google Scholar
  186. Meng Z Y, Yao D. 2014. Damage survey, radar, and environment analyses on the first-ever documented tornado in Beijing during the heavy rainfall event of 21 July 2012. Weather Forecast, 29: 702–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Meng Z Y, Zhang F, Markowski P, Wu D C, Zhao K. 2012. A modeling study on the development of a bowing structure and associated rear inflow within a squall line over South China. J Atmos Sci, 69: 1182–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Meng Z Y, Zhang Y J. 2012. On the squall lines preceding landfalling tropical cyclones in China. Mon Weather Rev, 140: 445–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Miao C S, Wu Z W, He J H, Chi Y Z. 2006. The anomalous features of the Northeast cold vortex during the first flood period in the last 50 years and its correlation with rainfall in South China (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 30: 1249–1256Google Scholar
  190. Miao Y C, Hu F, Liu S H, Qian T T, Xue M, Zheng Y J, Wang S. 2015. Seasonal variation of local atmospheric circulations and boundary layer structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and implications for air quality. J Adv Model Earth Syst, 7: 1602–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Micro- and Meso-Scale Weather Systems Test Base Collaboration Group in Eastern China. 1978. Anthology of micro- and meso-scale weather systems analysis (in Chinese). Hunan: Micro-and Meso-Scale Weather Systems Forecast Research Collaboration Area in Central HunanGoogle Scholar
  192. Ming J, Zhang J A. 2018. Direct measurements of momentum flux and dissipative heating in the surface layer of tropical cyclones during landfalls. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 123: 4926–4938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Mu M. 1992. Nonlinear stability of two-dimensional quasigeostrophic motions. Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn, 65: 57–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Mu M, Duan W S, Wang B. 2003. Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation and its applications. Nonlin Processes Geophys, 10: 493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Mu M, Jiang Z N. 2008. A method to find perturbations that trigger blocking onset: Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations. J Atmos Sci, 65: 3935–3946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Mu M, Jiang Z N. 2011. Similarities between optimal precursors that trigger the onset of blocking events and optimally growing initial errors in onset prediction. J Atmos Sci, 68: 2860–2877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Mu M, Shepherd T G, Swanson K. 1996. On nonlinear symmetric stability and the nonlinear saturation of symmetric instability. J Atmos Sci, 53: 2918–2923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Mu M, Zeng Q C, Theodore G S, Liu Y M. 1994. Nonlinear stability of multilayer quasi-geostrophic flow. J Fluid Mech, 264: 165–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Ni X, Zhang Q H, Liu C T, Li X F, Zou T, Lin J P, Kong H, Ren Z H. 2017. Decreased hail size in China since 1980. Sci Rep, 7: 10913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Ni Y Q, Zhou X J, Zhang R H, Wang P Y, Yi Q J. 2006. Experiments and studies for heavy rainfall in Southern China (in Chinese). J Appl Meteorol Sci, 17: 690–704Google Scholar
  201. Nie J, Sobel A H, Shaevitz D A, Wang S G. 2018. Dynamic amplification of extreme precipitation sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 115: 9467–9472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Peng J, Li Z Q, Zhang H, Liu J J, Maureen C. 2016. Systematic changes in cloud radiative forcing with aerosol loading for deep clouds in the tropics. J Atmos Sci, 73: 231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Qian C H, Duan Y H, Ma S H, Xu Y L. 2012. The current status and future development of China operational typhoon forecasting and its key technologies (in Chinese). Adv Meteorol Sci Technol, 2: 36–43Google Scholar
  204. Qiu B H, Ding Y H. 1979. Circulation Structure of China During the Meiyu Period in 1973 (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 56–83Google Scholar
  205. Qiu C J, Chou J. 2006. Four-dimensional data assimilation method based on SVD: Theoretical aspect. Theor Appl Climatol, 83: 51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Qiu C J, Shao A, Xu Q, Wei L. 2007. Fitting model fields to observations by using singular value decomposition: An ensemble-based 4DVar approach. J Geophys Res, 112: D11105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Qiu C J, Xu Q. 1992. A simple adjoint method of wind analysis for single-Doppler data. J Atmos Ocean Technol, 9: 588–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Qiu C J, Yu J X. 2000. Use of Doppler-radar data in improving short-term prediction of mesoscale weather (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 58: 245–248Google Scholar
  209. Qiu X, Tan Z M. 2013. The roles of asymmetric inflow forcing induced by outer rainbands in tropical cyclone secondary eyewall formation. J Atmos Sci, 70: 953–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Qiu X, Tan Z M, Xiao Q. 2010. The roles of vortex Rossby waves in hurricane secondary eyewall formation. Mon Weather Rev, 138: 2092–2109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Qiu Y Y. 1956. Temperature field and wind field on the 140° east longitude section in winter (in Chinese). Acta Sci Nat Univ Pekin, 2: 63–70Google Scholar
  212. Rex D F. 1950. Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effect upon regional climate. Tellus, 2: 196–211Google Scholar
  213. Robert A. 1969. The integration of a spectral model of the atmosphere by the implicit method. Proc WMO/IUGG Sumposium on WNP. Tokyo, Japan Meteorological Agency, 19–24Google Scholar
  214. Robert A. 1982. A semi-Lagrangian and semi-implicit numerical integration scheme for the primitive meteorological equations. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 60: 319–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Rossby C G. 1938. On the mutual adjustment of pressure and velocity distributions in certain simple current systems, II. J Mar Res, 1: 239–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Rossby C G. 1939. Relation between variations in the intensity of the zonal circulation of the atmosphere and the displacements of the semi-permanent centers of action. J Mar Res, 2: 38–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Shen R G, Mou W F. 1965. Preliminary experience of the application of the 48-hour 500 mbar numerical forecast map by the Meteorological Observatory of the Central Meteorological Administration (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 35: 383–398Google Scholar
  218. Shen X H. 1932. Storm Study of the Yangtze River Basin from June to July 1931 (in Chinese). Academia Sinica Meteorological Institute, 3Google Scholar
  219. Shen X S, Gong J D, Wang J J. 2015. GRAPESGFS technical report (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration Numerical Forecast Center, 235Google Scholar
  220. Shen X S, Zhou X J. 2013. GRAPES Heavy Rainfall Numerical Forecasting System (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 186Google Scholar
  221. Shi S J, Yu J H, Zhang D L. 2009. Causes of wave number-1 asymmetric rainfall distribution of tropical storm Bilis (2006) during its landfall (in Chinese). J Trop Oceanogr, 28: 34–42Google Scholar
  222. Simmons A J, Chen J B. 1991. The calculation of geopotential and the pressure gradient in the ECMWF atmospheric model: Influence on the simulation of the polar atmosphere and on temperature analyses. Q J R Met Soc, 117: 29–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Song F F, Zhou T J. 2014. The climatology and interannual variability of East Asian summer monsoon in CMIP5 coupled models: Does air-sea coupling improve the simulations? J Clim, 27: 8761–8777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Staff Members of Academia Sinica. 1958. On the general circulation over the East Asia (I). Tellus, 9: 432–446Google Scholar
  225. Staff Members of Academia Sinica. 1959a. On the general circulation over the East Asia (II). Tellus, 10: 58–75Google Scholar
  226. Staff Members of Academia Sinica. 1959b. On the general circulation over the East Asia (III). Tellus, 10: 299–312Google Scholar
  227. Su T, Zhai G Q. 2017. The role of convectively generated gravity waves on convective initiation: A case study. Mon Weather Rev, 145: 335–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Sun J H, Zhao S X. 2002a. A study of mesoscale convective systems and its environmental fields during the June 1994 record heavy rainfall of South China Part I: A numerical simulation study of meso-β convective system inducing heavy rainfall (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 26: 541–557Google Scholar
  229. Sun J H, Zhao S X. 2002b. A study of mesoscale convective systems and its environmental fields during the June 1994 record heavy rainfall in South China Part H: Effect of physical processes, initial environmental fields and topography on meso-β convective system (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 26: 633–646Google Scholar
  230. Sun J H, Zhao S X. 2010. The impacts of multiscale weather systems on freezing rain and snowstorms over southern China. Weather Forecast, 25: 388–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Sun L, An G, Gao Z T, Tang X L, Ding L, Shen B Z. 2002. A composite diagnostic study of heavy rain caused by the northeast cold vortex over Songhuajiang-nenjiang river basin in summer of 1998 (in Chinese). J Appl Meteorol Sci, 13: 156–162Google Scholar
  232. Tan Z M, Wu R S. 1990. The dynamics of Ekman momentum flow and Frontalgenesis (in Chinese). Sci China Ser B, 12: 1322–1332Google Scholar
  233. Tan Z M, Wu R S. 1991. On Ekman momentum approximation for boundary layer dynamics (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 4: 421–429Google Scholar
  234. Tan Z M, Wu R S. 2000a. A theoretical study of low-level frontal structure in the boundary layer over orography Part I: Cold front and uniform geostrophic flow (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 58: 137–150Google Scholar
  235. Tan Z M, Wu R S. 2000b. A theoretical study of low-level frontal structure in the boundary layer over orography Part II: Warm front and uniform geostrophic flow (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 58: 165–277Google Scholar
  236. Tan Z M, Zhao S X. 2010. Study on Structure and Mechanism of β Mesoscale Strong Convective System in South China (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 327Google Scholar
  237. Tang J, Zhang J A, Kieu C, Marks F D. 2018. Sensitivity of hurricane intensity and structure to two types of planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes in idealized HWRF simulations. Tropical Cyclone Res Rev, 7: 201–211Google Scholar
  238. Tao S Y. 1959. China’s research on the cold wave of East Asia in the past ten years (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 30: 226–230Google Scholar
  239. Tao S Y. 1963. Study on Problems ofSummer Subtropical Weather System in China (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 146Google Scholar
  240. Tao S Y, eds. 1980. Heavy Rain in China (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 225Google Scholar
  241. Tao S Y. 1996. The anomalies of East Asian summer monsoon activities in 1994 and the extreme flood disasters in South China (in Chinese). In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Heavy Rainstorms in South China in 1994. Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 1–5Google Scholar
  242. Tao S Y, Ni Y Q, Zhao S X, Chen S J, Wang J J. 2001. Study on the Formation Mechanism and Forecast of Chinese Rainstorm in Summer of 1998 (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 184Google Scholar
  243. Tao S Y, Wei J. 2008. Severe snow and freezing-rain in January 2008 in the Southern China (in Chinese). Clim Environ Res, 13: 337–350Google Scholar
  244. Tao S Y, Zhao S X, Zhou X P, Ji L R, Sun S Q, Gao S T, Zhang Q Y. 2003. The research progress of the synoptic meteorology and synoptic forecast (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 27: 451–467Google Scholar
  245. Tao S Y, Zhao Y J, Chen X M. 1958a. The relationship between May-Yü in far east and the behaviour of circulation over Asia (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 29: 119–134Google Scholar
  246. Tao S Y, Zhao Y J, Chen X M. 1958b. Chinese May-Yü (in Chinese). Central Weather Bureau Meteorological Papers, 4: 36–40Google Scholar
  247. Tao Z Y. 1992. The VAP method to retrieve the wind vector field based on single-Doppler velocity field (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 50: 81–90Google Scholar
  248. Temperton C, Hortal M, Simmons A. 2001. A two-time-level semi-Lagrangian global spectral model. Q J R Met Soc, 127: 111–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Tu C W, Lu X. 1938. The air masses of China (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 5: 175–218Google Scholar
  250. Wan B C, Gao Z Q, Chen F, Lu C G. 2017. Impact of Tibetan Plateau surface heating on persistent extreme precipitation events in southeastern China. Mon Weather Rev, 145: 3485–3505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Wan Q L, He J H. 2012. The application of marine meteorological observation in tropical cyclone data assimilation (in Chinese). Eng Sci, 14: 33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Wang B. 1988. Dynamics of tropical low-frequency waves: Ananalysis of the moist Kelvin wave. J Atmos Sci, 45: 2051–2065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Wang B, Ji Z Z. 1990. Construction and preliminary test of explicit completely squared conservative difference scheme (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull, 35: 766–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Wang B, Ji Z Z. 2006. New Numerical Methods in Atmospheric Science and Their Applications (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 216Google Scholar
  255. Wang B, Wan H, Ji Z Z, Zhang X, Yu R C, Yu Y Q, Liu H T. 2004. Design of a new dynamical core for global atmospheric models based on some efficient numerical methods. Sci China Ser A, 47: 4–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Wang B, Xie X S. 1998. Coupled modes of the warm pool climate system. Part I: The role of air-ea interaction in maintaining Madden-Julian oscillation. J Clim, 11: 2116–2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Wang B, Zhao Y. 2005. A new data assimilation approach. Acta Meteorol Sin, 63: 694–701Google Scholar
  258. Wang D H, Wei T J. 1982. Meiyu Front Structural Features with Heavy Rain. Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 176–181Google Scholar
  259. Wang H, Luo Y L, Jou B J D. 2014. Initiation, maintenance, and properties of convection in an extreme rainfall event during SCMREX: Observational analysis. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 119: 13,206-13,232Google Scholar
  260. Wang J C, Gong J D, Wang R C. 2016. Estimation of background error for brightness temperature in GRAPES 3DVar and its application in radiance data background quality control (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 74: 397–409Google Scholar
  261. Wang J C, Li J P. 2009. A four-dimensional scheme based on singular value decomposition (4DSVD) for chaotic-attractor-theory-oriented data assimilation. J Geophys Res, 114: D02114Google Scholar
  262. Wang J C, Lu H J, Han W, Liu Y, Wang R C, Zhang H, Huang J, Liu Y Z, Hao M, Li J, Tian W H. 2017. Improvements and performances of the operational GRAPES GFS 3DVar system (in Chinese). J Appl Meteorol Sci, 28: 11–24Google Scholar
  263. Wang J C, Zhuang Z R, Han W, Lu H J. 2014. An improvement of background error covariance in the global GRAPES variational data assimilation and its impact on the analysis and prediction: Statistics of the three-dimensional structure of background error covariance (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 72: 62–78Google Scholar
  264. Wang L, Kodera K, Chen W. 2012. Observed triggering of tropical convection by a cold surge: Implications for MJO initiation. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 138: 1740–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Wang P Y, Li Z C. 2001. Disaster weather and mesoscale meteorology research (in Chinese). Meteorol Sci Technol, 27: 10–14Google Scholar
  266. Wang R C, Gong J D, Zhang L, Lu H J. 2015. Tropical balance characteristics between mass and wind fields and their impact on analyses and forecasts in GRAPES system. Part II: Application of linear balance equation-regression hybrid constraint scheme (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 39: 1225–1236Google Scholar
  267. Wang Y Q, Wang Y Q, Fudeyasu H. 2009. The role of typhoon Songda (2004) in producing distantly located heavy rainfall in Japan. Mon Weather Rev, 137: 3699–3716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Wang Y, Yan Z W, Chandler R E. 2010. An analysis of mid-summer rainfall occurrence in eastern China and its relationship with large-scale warming using generalized linear models. Int J Climatol, 30: 1826–1834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Wang Z L, Lin L, Zhang X Y, Zhang H, Liu L K, Xu Y Y. 2017. Scenario dependence of future changes in climate extremes under 1.5°C and 2°C global warming. Sci Rep, 7: 46432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Wang Z S. 1963. A case study of low level shear line over Yangtze-Hwai valley in China (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 33: 189–204Google Scholar
  271. Wei Y T, Mu M, Ren H L, Fu J X. 2019. Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations of moisture triggering primary MJO initiation. Geophys Res Lett, 46: 3492–3501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Wen J, Zhao K, Huang H, Zhou B W, Yang Z L, Chen G, Wang M J, Wen L, Dai H N, Xu L L, Liu S, Zhang G F, Lee W C. 2017. Evolution of microphysical structure of a subtropical squall line observed by a polarimetric radar and a disdrometer during OPACC in Eastern China. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 122: 8033–8050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Wen Y R, Xue L, Li Y, Wei N, Lü A M. 2015. Interaction between Typhoon Vicente (1208) and the western Pacific subtropical high during the Beijing extreme rainfall of 21 July 2012. J Meteorol Res, 29: 293–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Wheeler M, Kiladis G N. 1999. Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber-frequency domain. J Atmos Sci, 56: 374–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Wu C C. 2013. Typhoon Morakot: Key findings from the journal TAO for improving prediction of extreme rains at landfall. Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 94: 155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Wu D C, Meng Z Y, Yan D C. 2013. The predictability of a squall line in South China on 23 April 2007. Adv Atmos Sci, 30: 485–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Wu D, Zhao K, Kumjian M R, Chen X M, Huang H, Wang M J, Jr A C D, Duan Y H, Zhang F Q. 2018. Kinematics and microphysics of convection in the outer rainband of Typhoon Nida (2016) revealed by polarimetric radar. Mon Weather Rev, 146: 2147–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Wu G X. 1984. The nonlinear response of the atmosphere to large-scale mechanical and thermal forcing. J Atmos Sci, 41: 2456–2476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Wu G X, Chen B. 1989. Non-acceleration theorem in a primitive equation system: I. Acceleration of zonal mean flow. Adv Atmos Sci, 6: 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Wu G X, Chou J F, Liu Y M, He J H. 2002. Dynamics of the Formation and Variation of Subtropical Anticyclones (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 314Google Scholar
  281. Wu G X, Li Z Q, Fu C B, Zhang X Y, Zhang R Y, Zhang R H, Zhou T J, Li J P, Li J D, Zhou D G, Wu L, Zhou L T, He B, Huang R H. 2016. Advances in studying interactions between aerosols and monsoon in China. Sci China Earth Sci, 59: 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Wu G X, Liu H, Zhao Y C, Li W P. 1996. A nine-layer atmospheric general circulation model and its performance. Adv Atmos Sci, 13: 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Wu G X, Liu Y M, Liu P. 1999. The effect of spatially nonuniform heating on the formation and variation of subtropical high I. Scale analysis (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 57: 257–263Google Scholar
  284. Wu G X, Liu Y M. 2000. Thermal adaptation, overshooting, dispersion, and subtropical anticyclone Part I: Thermal adaptation and overshooting (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 24: 433–446Google Scholar
  285. Wu G X, Liu Y M. 2003. Summertime quadruplet heating pattern in the subtropics and the associated atmospheric circulation. Geophys Res Lett, 30: 1201Google Scholar
  286. Wu L G, Liang J, Wu C C. 2011a. Monsoonal influence on Typhoon Morakot (2009). Part I: Observational analysis. J Atmos Sci, 68: 2208–2221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Wu L G, Liu Q Y, Li Y B. 2018. Prevalence of tornado-scale vortices in the tropical cyclone eyewall. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 115: 8307–8310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Wu L G, Zong H J, Liang J. 2011b. Observational analysis of sudden tropical cyclone track changes in the vicinity of the East China Sea. J Atmos Sci, 68: 3012–3031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Wu L G, Zong H J, Liang J. 2013. Observational analysis of tropical cyclone formation associated with monsoon gyres. J Atmos Sci, 70: 1023–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Wu M W, Luo Y L, Chen F, Wong W K. 2019. Observed link of extreme hourly precipitation changes to urbanization over coastal South China. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 58: 1799–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Wu M W, Luo Y L. 2016. Mesoscale observational analysis of lifting mechanism of a warm-sector convective system producing the maximal daily precipitation in China mainland during pre-summer rainy season of 2015. J Meteorol Res, 30: 719–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Wu R S, Chao J P. 1978. Characteristics of multi-time scales of motion and temporal boundary layer in the rotating atmosphere (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 2: 267–275Google Scholar
  293. Wu R S, Gao S T, Tan M Z. 2004. Frontal Process and Mesoscale Disturbance (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 168Google Scholar
  294. Xie Y B. 1956. A preliminary survey of certain rain-bearing systems over China in spring and summer (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 27: 1–23Google Scholar
  295. Xie Y B. 1959. Research work on precipitation in China in the past ten years (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 30: 223–225Google Scholar
  296. Xie Y B, Chen S J, Zhang Y L, Huang Y L. 1963. A preliminarily statistic and synoptic study about the basic currents over southeastern Asia and the initiation of typhoons (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 33: 206–217Google Scholar
  297. Xie Y B, Chen Y Q. 1951. Temperature field and flow field over the western Pacific and northern parts of the East Asian continent in winter (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 22: 52–53Google Scholar
  298. Xie Y B, Xie A, Zhang T, Yang D S, Jiang S C. 1978. Dynamic analysis and its application in weather forecasting (in Chinese). Acta Sci Nat Univ Peking, 24: 1–9Google Scholar
  299. Xu D S, Shao A M, Qiu C J. 2011a. Assimilation of Doppler radar velocity observations with SVD-En3DVar method. Part I: Simulated data experiments (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 35: 753–766Google Scholar
  300. Xu D S, Shao A M, Qiu C J. 2011b. Assimilation of Doppler radar velocity observations with SVD-En3DVar method. Part II: Real data experiments (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 35: 818–832Google Scholar
  301. Xu J, Wang Y Q, Tan Z M. 2016. The relationship between sea surface temperature and maximum intensification rate of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic. J Atmos Sci, 73: 4979–4988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Xu J, Wang Y Q. 2010. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone inner-core size and intensity to the radial distribution of surface entropy flux. J Atmos Sci, 67: 1831–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Xu J, Wang Y Q. 2015. A statistical analysis on the dependence of tropical cyclone intensification rate on the storm intensity and size in the North Atlantic. Weather Forecast, 30: 692–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Xu Z X. 1977a. Analytical study of mesoscale weather processes in cold, low-resistance and high-lying Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in summer (I) (in Chinese). In: Central Meteorological Administration Institute. Radar Meteorological Anthology. 1–16Google Scholar
  305. Xu Z X. 1977b. Analytical study of mesoscale weather processes in cold, low-resistance and high-lying Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in summer (II) (in Chinese). In: Central Meteorological Administration Institute. Radar Meteorological Anthology. 17–39Google Scholar
  306. Xue J S. 2006. Progress of Chinese numerical prediction in the early new century (in Chinese). J Appl Meteor Sci, 17: 602–610Google Scholar
  307. Xue J S, Chen D H. 2008. Scientific Design and Application of Numerical Forecasting System GRAPES (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 383Google Scholar
  308. Xue M. 2016. Preface to the Special Issue on the “Observation, Prediction and Analysis of severe Convection of China” (OPACC) National “973” Projec. Adv Atmos Sci, 33: 1099–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Yan H R, Li Z Q, Huang J P, Maureen C, Liu J J. 2014. Long-term aerosolmediated changes in cloud radiative forcing of deep clouds at the top and bottom of the atmosphere over the Southern Great Plains. Chem Phys, 14: 7113–7124Google Scholar
  310. Yan Z H, Wang Y, Zhu G F. 2010. The review and outlook on the development of operational NWP in NMC (in Chinese). Meteorol Mon, 36: 26–32Google Scholar
  311. Yan Z H, Zhao J Y, Zhu Q, Guo X R. 1997. High resolution limited area operational numerical prediction model and precipitation forecast experiment (in Chinese). J Appl Meteorol Sci, 8: 393–400Google Scholar
  312. Yang S L, Ding Z L, Li Y Y, Wang X, Jiang W Y, Huang X F. 2015. Warming-induced northwestward migration of the East Asian monsoon rain belt from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112: 13178–13183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Yang X L, Sun J H, Zheng Y G. 2017. A 5-yr climatology of severe convective wind events over China. Weather Forecast, 32: 1289–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Yang X, Ferrat M, Li Z Q. 2013. New evidence of orographic precipitation suppression by aerosols in central China. Meteorol Atmos Phys, 119: 17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Yang X, Li Z Q. 2014. Increases in thunderstorm activity and relationships with air pollution in southeast China. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 119: 1835–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Yang Y, Fan J W, Leung L R, Zhao C, Li Z Q, Rosenfeld D. 2016. Mechanisms contributing to suppressed precipitation in Mt. Hua of Central China. Part I: Mountain valley circulation. J Atmos Sci, 73: 1351–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Ye D Z. 1952. Seasonal changes in the influence of the Tibetan Plateau on atmospheric circulation (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 23: 33–47Google Scholar
  318. Ye D Z, Gao Y X. 1979. Tibetan Plateau Meteorology (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 278Google Scholar
  319. Ye D Z, Gu Z C. 1955. The influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the East Asian atmospheric circulation and the weather in China (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull, 6: 30–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Ye D Z, Li M C. 1964. The adaptation between the pressure and the wind field in the meso-and small-scale motion (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 34: 409–423Google Scholar
  321. Ye D Z, Li M C. 1979. Multi-time scale characteristics of various types of atmospheric motion (in Chinese). In: Proceedings of the Second National Numerical Weather Prediction. Beijing: Science Press. 181–192Google Scholar
  322. Ye D Z, Luo S W, Zhu B Z. 1957. The wind structure and heat balance in the lower troposphere over Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 28: 108–121Google Scholar
  323. Ye D Z, Tao S Y, Li M C. 1958. The abrupt change of circulation over northern hemisphere during June and October (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 29: 249–263Google Scholar
  324. Ye D Z, Tao S Y, Zhu B Z, Yang J C, Chen L D. 1962. Study on the winter blockage situation in the northern hemisphere (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 135Google Scholar
  325. Ye D Z, Zhu B Z. 1958. Basic Problems of Atmospheric Circulation (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 159Google Scholar
  326. Yeh T. 1949. On energy dispersion in the atmosphere. J Meteorol, 6: 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Yeh T C. 1957. On the formation of quasi-geostrophic motion in the atmosphere. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 35A: 130–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Yeh T, Li M. 1982. On the characteristics of the scales of the atmospheric motions. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 60: 16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Yi B Q, Zhang Q H. 2010. Near-equatorial typhoon development: Climatology and numerical simulations. Adv Atmos Sci, 27: 1014–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Yin R Y, Han W, Gao Z Q, Wang G. 2019. Study on longwave infrared channel selection based on background error and observation error estimation in the observation range of FY-4A (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 77, doi:  https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2019.051
  331. You Q L, Kang S, Aguilar E, Pepin N, Flügel W A, Yan Y, Xu Y, Zhang Y, Huang J. 2011. Changes in daily climate extremes in China and their connection to the large scale atmospheric circulation during 1961–2003. Clim Dyn, 36: 2399–2417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Yu R C, Xue J S, Xu Y P. 2004. AREMS Mesoscale Heavy Rain Numerical Prediction Model System (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 233Google Scholar
  333. Yu S C, Li P F, Wang L Q, Wang P, Wang S, Chang S C, Liu W P, Alapaty K. 2016. Anthropogenic aerosols are a potential cause for migration of the summer monsoon rain belt in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 113: E2209–E2210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Yu X D, Zhou X G, Wang X M. 2012. The advances in the nowcasting techniques on thunderstorms and severe convection (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 70: 311–337Google Scholar
  335. Yuan C X, Liu J Q, Luo J J, Guan Z Y. 2019. Influences of tropical Indian and Pacific oceans on the interannual variations of precipitation in the early and late rainy seasons in South China. J Clim, 32: 3681–3694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Yue J, Meng Z Y, Yu C K, Cheng L W. 2017. Impact of coastal radar observability on the forecast of the track and rainfall of Typhoon Morakot (2009) using WRF-based ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation. Adv Atmos Sci, 34: 66–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Zeng Q C. 1963a. Influence of disturbance characteristics on atmospheric adaptation process and use of wind measurement data (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 33: 37–50Google Scholar
  338. Zeng Q C. 1963b. Adaptation process and development process in the atmosphere Part I: Physical analysis and linear theory (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 35: 163–174Google Scholar
  339. Zeng Q C. 1963c. Adaptation process and development process in the atmosphere Part II: Nonlinear problems (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 35: 281–289Google Scholar
  340. Zeng Q C. 1963d. Characteristic parameters and dynamic equations of atmospheric motion (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 33: 472–483Google Scholar
  341. Zeng Q C. 1979a. Nonlinear interaction and rotational adaptation process of motion in rotating atmosphere (in Chinese). Sci China Ser A, 22: 986–995Google Scholar
  342. Zeng Q C. 1979b. The Mathematical and Physical Basis of Numerical Weather Prediction. The First Volume (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 543Google Scholar
  343. Zeng Q C. 1982. On the evolution and interaction of disturbances and zonal flow in rotating barotropic atmosphere. J Meteorol Soc Jpn, 60: 24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Zeng Q C. 1983. The evolution of a rossby-wave packet in a three-dimensional baroclinic atmosphere. J Atmos Sci, 40: 73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Zeng Q C. 1989. Variational principle of instability of atmospheric motions. Adv Atmos Sci, 6: 137–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Zeng Q C, Ji Z Z. 1981. On the computational stability of evolution equations (in Chinese). Math Numer Sin, 1: 79–86Google Scholar
  347. Zeng Q C, Ye D Z. 1980. Adaptation process of motion in a rotating atmosphere (in Chinese). Acta Mech Sin, 13: 1–11Google Scholar
  348. Zeng Q C, Ye D Z. 1981. The advance in investigation of the problems of the adaptation processes in the rotating atmosphere, I (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 4: 379–393Google Scholar
  349. Zeng Q C, Ye D Z. 1982. The advance in investigation of the problems of the adaptation processes in the rotating atmosphere, II (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 5: 101–112Google Scholar
  350. Zeng Q C, Yuan C G, Zhang X H, Bao N. 1985. A test for the difference scheme of a general circulation model (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 43: 441–449Google Scholar
  351. Zeng Q T. 1961. The application of a complete system of thermo-hydrodynamic equations to short-term weather forecast in a two-level model. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR, 137: 76–78Google Scholar
  352. Zhai P, Sun A, Ren F, Liu X, Gao B, Zhang Q. 1999. Changes of climate extremes in China. Climatic Change, 42: 203–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Zhang B C, Zhang Z Y. 1990. Study on Meiyu Front Rainstorm in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 269Google Scholar
  354. Zhang D L, Lin Y H, Zhao P, Yu X D, Wang S Q, Kang H W, Ding Y H. 2013. The Beijing extreme rainfall of 21 July 2012: “Right results” but for wrong reasons. Geophys Res Lett, 40: 1426–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Zhang J J, Liao D X, Chen S J. 1985. Preliminary report on China’s numerical forecasting business in the past two years (in Chinese). In: Collection of Beijing Meteorological Center. 198–210Google Scholar
  356. Zhang L, Liu Y Z, Liu Y, Gong J D, Lu H J, Jin Z Y, Tian W H, Liu G Q, Zhou B, Zhao B. 2019. The operational global four-dimensional variational data assimilation system at the China Meteorological Administration. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 145: 1882–1896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Zhang M R, Meng Z Y, Huang Y P, Wang D Y. 2019. The mechanism and predictability of an elevated convection initiation event in a weak-lifting environment in Central-Eastern China. Mon Weather Rev, 147: 1823–1841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Zhang M, Zhang D L, Wang A S. 2009. Numerical simulation of torrential rainfall and vortical hot towers in a midlatitude mesoscale convective system. Atmos Ocean Sci Lett, 2: 189–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Zhang M, Zhang D L. 2012. Subkilometer simulation of a torrential-rain-producing mesoscale convective system in East China. Part I: Model verification and convective organization. Mon Weather Rev, 140: 184–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Zhang Q H, Chen S J, Kuo Y H, Lau K H, Anthes R A. 2005a. Numerical study of a typhoon with a large eye: Model simulation and verification. Mon Weather Rev, 133: 725–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Zhang Q H, Kuo Y H, Chen S J. 2005b. Interaction between concentric eye-walls in super typhoonWinnie (1997). Q J R Meteorol Soc, 131: 3183–3204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Zhang Q H. 1999. Numerical simulation of the meso-scale convective systems observed over Taiwan Strait on 7–8 June 1998 (in Chinese). Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Beijing: Peking UniversityGoogle Scholar
  363. Zhang R H, Liu Y M. 2013. Large-Scale Process of Heavy Precipitation in Summer in Southern China (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 312Google Scholar
  364. Zhang W L, Zhang D L, Wang A S, Cui X P. 2009. An investigation of the genesis of typhoon Durian (2001) from a monsoon trough (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 67: 811–827Google Scholar
  365. Zhang W P. 1978. Comparative analysis of development and non-development of tropical disturbance in the Northwest Pacific and South China Sea (in Chinese). In: Typhoon Meeting Anthology. Shanghai: Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers. 240Google Scholar
  366. Zhang X L, Tao S Y, Sun J H. 2010. Ingredients-based heavy rainfall forecasting (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 34: 754–766Google Scholar
  367. Zhang X R, Li Y, Zhang D L, Chen L S. 2018. A 65-yr climatology of unusual tracks of tropical cyclones in the vicinity of China’s coastal waters during 1949–2013. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 57: 155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Zhang Y J, Zhang F Q. 2018. A review on the ensemble-based data assimilations for severe convective storms (in Chinese). Adv Meteorol Sci Technol, 8: 38–52Google Scholar
  369. Zhang Y, Xu Y L, Dong W J, Cao L J, Sparrow M. 2006. A future climate scenario of regional changes in extreme climate events over China using the PRECIS climate model. Geophys Res Lett, 33: L24702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Zhao B L, Ding Y H. 1999. Study of Energy and Water Cycle over Huaihe River Basin (I) (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 273Google Scholar
  371. Zhao C S, Tie X X, Lin Y P. 2006. A possible positive feedback of reduction of precipitation and increase in aerosols over eastern central China. Geophys Res Lett, 33: L11814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Zhao G Z, Li M X, Mou W F. 1953. Summer high altitude pattern in China and summer precipitation in South China (in Chinese). Weather Mon, JulyGoogle Scholar
  373. Zhao K, Li X F, Xue M, Jou B J D, Lee W C. 2012. Short-term forecasting through intermittent assimilation of data from Taiwan and mainland China coastal radars for Typhoon Meranti (2010) at landfall. J Geophys Res, 117: D06108Google Scholar
  374. Zhao K, Lin Q, Lee W C, Sun Y Q, Zhang F Q. 2016. Doppler radar analysis of triple eyewalls in Typhoon Usagi (2013). Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 97: 25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Zhao K, Wang M J, Xue M, Fu P L, Yang Z L, Chen X M, Zhang Y, Lee W C, Zhang F Q, Lin Q, Li Z H. 2017. Doppler radar analysis of a tornadic miniature supercell during the landfall of Typhoon Mujigae (2015) in South China. Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 98: 1821–1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Zhao S X. 1988. Energetics of cyclogenesis on Meiyu (Baiu) front (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 12(s1): 191–201Google Scholar
  377. Zhao S X, Liu S H, Liu M Y. 1980. Mesoscale analysis on the summer heavy convective weather caused by cold vortex in Beijing (in Chinese). In: The Collective Journal of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No.9). Beijing: Science Press. 151–160Google Scholar
  378. Zhao S X, Tao Z Y, Sun J H, Bei N F. 2004. Analysis and Research on Rainstorm Mechanism of Meiyu Front in the Yangtze River Basin (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 282Google Scholar
  379. Zhao S X, Zeng Q C. 2005. A study of east Asia strong cold wave surge crossing equator and influencing the development of tropical cyclone and heavy rainfall in the southern hemisphere (in Chinese). Clim Environ Res, 10: 507–525Google Scholar
  380. Zheng L L, Sun J H, Zhang X L, Liu C H. 2013. Organizational modes of mesoscale convective systems over central East China. Weather Forecast, 28: 1081–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Zheng Q L. 1980. Northern Hemisphere seven-layer initial equation spectrum model (in Chinese). In: Proceedings of the Second National Numerical Weather Forecast Conference. Beijing: Science Press. 13–24Google Scholar
  382. Zheng Y G, Zhang X L, Zhou Q L, Duan Y H, Chen Y, He L F. 2010. Review on severe convective weather short-term forecasting and nowcasting (in Chinese). Meteorol Mon, 36: 33–42Google Scholar
  383. Zhong L Z, Mu R, Zhang D L, Zhao P. 2015. An observational analysis of warm-sector rainfall characteristics associated with the 21 July 2012 Beijing extreme rainfall event. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 120: 3274–3291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Zhong Q. 1997. The formulation of fidelity schemes of physical conservation laws and improvements on a traditional scheme of baroclinic primitive equations for numerical weather prediction (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin, 55: 641–661Google Scholar
  385. Zhong S, Qian Y, Zhao C, Leung L R, Yang X Q. 2015. A case study of urbanization impact on summer precipitation in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area: Urban heat island versus aerosol effects. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 120: 10903–10914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Zhong W, Zhang D L, Lu H C. 2009. A theory for mixed vortex Rossby-Gravity waves in tropical cyclones. J Atmos Sci, 66: 3366–3381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Zhong W, Zhang D L. 2014. An eigenfrequency analysis of Mixed Rossby-Gravity Waves on barotropic vortices. J Atmos Sci, 71: 2186–2203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Zhou L, Kang I S. 2013. Influence of convective momentum transport on Mixed Rossby-Gravity Waves: A Contribution to tropical 2-Day waves. J Atmos Sci, 70: 2467–2475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Zhou X J, Xue J S, Tao Z Y, Zhao S X, Yi Q J, Su B X. 2003. Scientific Experiment on Rainstorm in South China in 1998 (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 220Google Scholar
  390. Zhou X J. 2000. Torrential Rainfall Experiment over the both Sides of the Taiwan Strait and Adjacent Area (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press. 370Google Scholar
  391. Zhu K Z. 1925. Climate fluctuation during historic times in China (in Chinese). Eastern Miscellany, 22: 22–28Google Scholar
  392. Zhu L, Wan Q L, Shen X Y, Meng Z Y, Zhang F Q, Weng Y H, Sippel J, Gao Y D, Zhang Y J, Yue J. 2016. Prediction and predictability of high-impact western Pacific landfalling tropical cyclone Vicente (2012) through convection-permitting ensemble assimilation of Doppler radar velocity. Mon Weather Rev, 144: 21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Zhu Z X, Zhu B Z. 1982. Nonlinear equilibrium state and blocking situation of ultralong waves under zonal asymmetric thermal forcing (in Chinese). Sci China Ser B, 25: 361–371Google Scholar
  394. Zhuang Z R, Xue J S, Han W, Liu Y. 2014. The application of radiosonde observation blacklisting check to variable data assimilation system (in Chinese). J Appl Meteorol Sci, 25: 274–283Google Scholar
  395. Zou T, Zhang Q H, Li W H, Li J H. 2018. Responses of hail and storm days to climate change in the Tibetan Plateau. Geophys Res Lett, 45: 4485–4493CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhiyong Meng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fuqing Zhang
    • 2
  • Dehai Luo
    • 3
  • Zhemin Tan
    • 4
  • Juan Fang
    • 4
  • Jianhua Sun
    • 3
  • Xueshun Shen
    • 5
  • Yunji Zhang
    • 2
  • Shuguang Wang
    • 4
  • Wei Han
    • 5
  • Kun Zhao
    • 4
  • Lei Zhu
    • 6
  • Yongyun Hu
    • 1
  • Huiwen Xue
    • 1
  • Yaping Ma
    • 1
  • Lijuan Zhang
    • 1
  • Ji Nie
    • 1
  • Ruilin Zhou
    • 1
  • Sa Li
    • 1
  • Hongjun Liu
    • 1
  • Yuning Zhu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric ScienceThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of Atmospheric ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  5. 5.National Meteorological CenterBeijingChina
  6. 6.School of Atmospheric SciencesNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations