Advertisement

Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 11, pp 1783–1804 | Cite as

Late Mesozoic tectonostratigraphic division and correlation of the Bohai Bay basin: Implications for the Yanshanian Orogeny

  • Jichang Zhu
  • Youliang FengEmail author
  • Qing-Ren Meng
  • Fengcheng Wu
  • Hao Li
  • Haitao Liu
  • Feipeng Zhang
  • Tianyu Wang
  • Guoli Wu
  • Caineng Zou
  • Rixiang Zhu
Research Paper
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

We present the results of Mesozoic sequences of the Bohai Bay basin in North China, based mainly on geochronology and interpretations of seismic profiles and logging data. Five tectono-stratigraphic sequences are defined: Lower-Middle Triassic, Lower-Middle Jurassic, Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous. Based on an analysis of detrital zircons, the clastic rocks recorded two intervals of Jurassic magmatic activity, during 180–175 and 160–152 Ma, which can be correlated to the Nandaling and Tiaojishan Formations in the Yanshan area, respectively. However, since Jurassic volcanic rocks have not yet been found in the Bohai Bay basin, we speculate that these two stages of activity were mainly concentrated around the periphery of the North China Craton (NCC) rather than within. Based on an analysis of zircons from volcanic rocks and pyroclastics, the early Cretaceous magmatism in the Bohai Bay basin can be divided into two stages, 125–120 and 110–100 Ma, which can be correlated to magmatism in the eastern part of the NCC. The zircon ages indicate an absence of volcanic activity during the late Tuchengzi and Zhangjiakou periods which may correlate to the uplift of the Bohai Bay basin in the late Late Jurassic. Comparison of the development of Mesozoic basins and sedimentary strata in the central-eastern part of Yanshan tectonic belt and the the Bohai Bay basin indicates that the two areas are generally comparable, but with substantial differences. The central-eastern part of the Yanshan structural belt lacks Early-Middle Triassic strata, and the Bohai Bay basin lacks late Jurassic-early Cretaceous strata. Based on research results from late Mesozoic sedimentary structures in the central and eastern parts of the Yanshan tectonic belt, we infer that episode A of the Yanshanian Orogeny was weak in the Bohai Bay basin and its periphery, while episode B of the Yanshanian Orogeny had a strong influence on the Bohai Bay basin and its periphery. The available data reveal differences in the expression of these episodes: the Bohai Bay basin is characterized by vertical uplift, and the northern margin of NCC is characterized by horizontal compression uplift.

Keywords

Yanshanian Orogeny Late Mesozoic Central-eastern part of Yanshan tectonic belt The Bohai Bay basin Tectonostratigraphic division 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Institute of China Petroleum Dagang Oilfield Exploration and Development Research for permission to publish relevant data. Jichang Zhu is very grateful to Professors Jianzhong Li, Shaobo Liu, Haitao Liu, Xiugang Pu and Wenya Jiang for their valuable support; and to Professors Chenglong Deng, Yan Chen, Wei Lin, Hongqi Yuan, and Dr. Weiyan Chen for their kind and conscientious assistance. We are also grateful to the two anonymous reviewers, whose insightful and constructive suggestions have helped us to improve this paper. This work was supported by the National Key R & D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFC0600406), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41688103 and 41702237), the National Oil & Gas Project (Grant No. 2016ZX05006-005), the Major National Science and Technology Projects (Grant No. 2017ZX05008006-002-001) and the State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution (Grant No. Z201604).

Supplementary material

11430_2018_9382_MOESM1_ESM.docx (189 kb)
Appendix Table S1 Age details of Mesozoic samples from the Bohai Bay basin

References

  1. Andersen T, Griffin W L, Person N J. 2002. Crustal evolution in the SW part of the Baltic Shield: The Hf isotope evidence. J Petrol, 43: 1725–1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen M B, Macdonald D I M, Xun Z, Vincent S J, Brouet-Menzies C. 1997. Early Cenozoic two-phase extension and late Cenozoic thermal subsidence and inversion of the Bohai Basin, northern China. Mar Pet Geol, 14: 951–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao Y G, Xie D Y, Cheng Z B. 1983. Yanshanian movement in Beijing Area (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 2: 91–100Google Scholar
  4. Chen Q H, Liu C Y, Li Q. 2002. Discovery and significance of thrust structures of Xuyangqiao-Heilongcun buried hill belt of Huanghua depression (in Chinese). Oil Gas Geol, 23: 353–1356Google Scholar
  5. Chen Y, Zhu G, Liu W G, Chen L L, Ao C. 2018. Mesozoic magmatic activities and tectonic movements in Mount Yunmeng area, Beijing (in Chinese). Geol Rev, 64: 843–868Google Scholar
  6. Cope T C. 2003. Sedimentary Evolution of the Yanshan Fold Thrust Belt, Northeast China. California: Stanford University Press. 230Google Scholar
  7. Cope T D, Shultz M R, Graham S A. 2007. Detrital record of Mesozoic shortening in the Yanshan belt, NE China: Testing structural interpretations with basin analysis. Basin Res, 19: 253–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Darby B J, Davis G A, Zheng Y D. 2001. Structure evolution of the southwestern Daqing Shan, Yinshan belt, Inner Mongolia, China. GSA Memoirs, 194: 199–214Google Scholar
  9. Darby B J, Ritts B D. 2002. Mesozoic contractional deformation in the middle of the Asian tectonic collage: The intraplate Western Ordos fold-thrust belt, China. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 205: 13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis G A. 2005. The Late Jurassic ‘Tuchengzi/Houcheng’ Formation of the Yanshan fold-thrust belt: An analysis. Earth Sci Front, 12: 331–345Google Scholar
  11. Davis G A, Cong W, Yadong Z, Jinjiang Z, Changhou Z, Gehrels G E. 1998. The enigmatic Yinshan fold-and-thrust belt of northern China: New views on its intraplate contractional styles. Geology, 26: 43–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davis G A, Darby B J. 2010. Early Cretaceous overprinting of the Mesozoic Daqing Shan fold-and-thrust belt by the Hohhot metamorphic core complex, Inner Mongolia, China. Geosci Front, 1: 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis G A, Zheng Y D, Darby B J, Zhang C, Gehrels G. 2001. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Yanshan fold and thrust belt with emphasis on Heibei and Liaoning Provinces in northern China in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Tectonic evolution of Central Asia: From continental assembly to intra-continental deformation (in Chinese). Geol Soc Am, 194: 171–197Google Scholar
  14. Dong S W, Hu J M, Li S Z, Shi W, Gao R, Liu X C, Xue H M. 2005. The Jurassic deformation in the Dabie Mountains and its tectonic significances (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 21: 1189–1194Google Scholar
  15. Dong S W, Zhang Y Q, Long C X, Yang Z Y, Ji Q, Wang T, Hu J M, Chen X H. 2007. Jurassic tectonic revolution in China and new interpretation of the “Yanshanian Movement” (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin-Engl Ed, 82: 334–347Google Scholar
  16. Dong S W, Zhang Y Q, Chen X H, Long C X, Wang T, Yang Z Y, Hu J M. 2008. The formation and deformational characteristics of East Asia multi-direction convergent tectonic system in Late Jurassic (in Chinese). Acta Geosci Sin, 29: 306–317Google Scholar
  17. Dong S, Zhang Y, Zhang F, Cui J, Chen X, Zhang S, Miao L, Li J, Shi W, Li Z, Huang S, Li H. 2015. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution. J Asian Earth Sci, 114: 750–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dong S, Zhang Y, Li H, Shi W, Xue H, Li J, Huang S, Wang Y. 2018. The Yanshan orogeny and late Mesozoic multi-plate convergence in East Asia—Commemorating 90th years of the “Yanshan Orogeny”. Sci China Earth Sci, 61: 1888–1909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fu L X, Lou D, Li H J. 2016. Control effect of Indosinian-Yanshan Movement on the Formation of buried hill in Dagang exploration area (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 37: 19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gong C. 2018. Mesozoic filling characteristics and basin evolution in Tonghua basin. Dissertation for Master’s Degree (in Chinese). Chang Chun: University of Jilin. 1–81Google Scholar
  21. Hu Z C, Zhang W, Liu Y S, Gao S, Li M, Zong K Q, Chen H H, Hu S H. 2015. “Wave” signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device for laser ablation quadrupole and multiple collector ICP-MS analysis: Application to lead isotope analysis. Anal Chem, 87: 1152–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang J Q. 1960. Preliminary summary of Chinese geological structure (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 1: 3–137Google Scholar
  23. Huang D Y. 2015. Yanliao Biota and Yanshan Movement (in Chinese). Acta Palaeontol Sin, 54: 501–546Google Scholar
  24. Huang D Y. 2016. Daohugou Biota (in Chinese). Shanghai: Shanghai Science and Technology Press. 300Google Scholar
  25. Huang D. 2019. Jurassic integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China. Sci China Earth Sci, 62: 223–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huang D Y, Cai C Y, Fu Y, Su Y T. 2019. The Middle-Late Jurassic Yanliao entomofauna. Palaeoentomology, 1: 3–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hou G T, Qian X L, Cai D S. 2001. The tectonic evolution of Bohai basin in Mesozoic and Cenozoic time (in Chinese). Acta Sci Natural Univ Pekinensis, 37: 845–851Google Scholar
  28. Hao Y W, Nuo M S, Xu Z L. 2014. Division of sedimentary basins and its tectonic evolution in North China From newproterozoic to Mesozoic (in Chinese). Earth Sci—J China Univ Geosci, 39: 1230–1242Google Scholar
  29. Jin C. 2007. Structure pattern evolution and dynamic mechanism of the Mesozoic strata in the Huanghua depression and Jiyang depression. Dissertation for Master’s Degree (in Chinese). Qingdao: Ocean University of China. 1–70Google Scholar
  30. Li S Z, Liu J Z, Zhao G C, Wu F Y, Han Z Z, Yang Z Z. 2004. Key geochronology of Mesozoic deformation in the Eastern block of the North China Craton and its constraints on regional tectonics: A case of Jiaodong and Liaodong peninsula (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 20: 633–646Google Scholar
  31. Li S Z, Suo Y H, Dai L M. 2010. Development of the Bohai Bay basin and destruction of the North China Craton (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 17: 64–89Google Scholar
  32. Li S Z, Suo Y H, Zhou L H. 2011. Pull-Apart basins within the North China Craton: Structural pattern and evolution of Huanghua depression in Bohai Bay basin (in Chinese). J Jilin Univ-Earth Sci Ed, 41: 1362–1379Google Scholar
  33. Liu J P, Milliman J D, Gao S, Cheng P. 2004. Holocene development of the Yellow River’s subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea. Mar Geol, 209: 45–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu S, Lin C, Liu X, Zhuang Q. 2018. Syn-tectonic sedimentation and its linkage to fold-thrusting in the region of Zhangjiakou, North Hebei, China. Sci China Earth Sci, 61: 681–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu Y Q, Liu Y X, Li P X, Zhang H, Zhang L J, Li Y, Xia H D. 2004. Daohugou Biota-Bearing lithostratigraphic succession on the Southeastern margin of the Ningcheng basin, Inner Mongolia, and its Geochronology (in Chinese). Geol Bull China, 23: 1180–1187Google Scholar
  36. Liu Y S, Hu Z C, Gao S, Gunther D, Xu J, Gao C G, Chen H H. 2008. In situ analysis of major and trace elements of anhydrous minerals by LA-ICP-MS without applying an internal standard. Chem Geol, 257: 34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liu Y S, Gao S, Hu Z C, Gao C G, Zong K Q, Wang D B. 2010. Continental and oceanic crust recycling-induced melt-peridotite interactions in the trans-north China Orogen: U-Pb dating, Hf isotopes and trace elements in zircons from mantle xenoliths. J Petrol, 51: 537–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ludwig K R. 2003. ISOPLOT 3.00: A Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel. California: Berkeley Geochronology CenterGoogle Scholar
  39. Luo J L, Gao Z Y. 1998. Discussion on the origin and geochemical characteristics of the Mesozoic volcanic sequences in Fenghuadian Area, Heibei Province (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 14: 109–111Google Scholar
  40. Meng Q R. 2017. Development of sedimentary basins in Eastern China during the Yanshanian period (in Chinese). Bull Mineral Petrol Geochem, 36: 567–569Google Scholar
  41. Meng Q R, Li S Y, Li R W. 2007. Mesozoic evolution of the Hefei basin in eastern China: Sedimentary response to deformations in the adjacent Dabieshan and along the Tanlu fault. Geol Soc Am Bull, 119: 897–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Meng Q R, Wu G L, Fan L G, Wei H H. 2019. Tectonic evolution of early Mesozoic sedimentary basins in the North China block. Earth-Sci Rev, 190: 416–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Niu B G, He Z J, Song B. 2003. Shrimp Dating of the Zhangjiakou volcanic series and its significance (in Chinese). Geol Bull China, 22: 140–141Google Scholar
  44. Qi J F, Yang Q. 2010. Cenozoic structural deformation and dynamic processes of the Bohai Bay basin province, China. Mar Pet Geol, 27: 757–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ren J Y, Tamaki K, Li S T, Zhang J X. 2002. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting and its dynamic setting in eastern China and adjacent areas. Tectonophysics, 344: 175–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shi X F, Liu S F, Lin C F. 2019. Growth structures and growth Strata of the Qianjiadian basin in the Western Yanshan fold and thrust belt, North China. Sci China Earth Sci, 62: 1092–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wong W H. 1927. Crustal Movements and igneous activities in Eastern China Since Mesozoic time (in Chinese). Bull Geol Soc China, 6: 9–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wong W H. 1929. The Mesozoic Orogenic Movement in Eastern China since Mesozoic time. Bull Geol Soc China, 8: 33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang W, Zhu G, Zhang S, Liu C, Gu C C. 2017. Detrital zircon evidence for depositional time and provenance of Mesozoic sediments in the Hefei Basin (in Chinese). Geol Rev, 63: 955–977Google Scholar
  50. Wang Y, Sun L, Zhou L, Xie Y. 2018. Discussion on the relationship between the Yanshanian Movement and cratonic destruction in North China. Sci China Earth Sci, 61: 499–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang Y C D S W, Chen X H. 2017. New time constraints on the initiation of Yanshan movement from Jurassic growth strata in the Daqingshan area, Inner Mongolia. Chin Sci Bull, 62: 1274–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang T Y, Wang Z C, Zhu J C, Wang J F, Fu L X, Wu F C, Feng J Y. 2018. Analysis on Mesozoic tectonic characteristics in Huanghua depression of Bohai Bay basin (in Chinese). China Offshore Oil and Gas, 30: 35–45Google Scholar
  53. Wu F Y, Sun D Y, Zhang G L, Ren X W. 2000. Deep geodynamics of Yanshain Movement (in Chinese). Geol J China Univ, 6: 379–388Google Scholar
  54. Wu Y P, Yang C Y, Wang X S. 2000. Ordovician buried hill reservoir plays and exploration technique of Northern Bohai Bay basin (in Chinese). Petrol Explor Dev, 27: 1–4Google Scholar
  55. Wu M L. 2007. Research on geological manifestation of Yanshan Movement and the Mesozoic buried hills in Jiyang depression. Dissertation for Master’s Degree (in Chinese). Wuhan: China University of Geosciences. 1–97Google Scholar
  56. Qi J F, Yu F S, Lu K Z. 2003. Conspectus on Mesozoic basins in Bohai Bay province. Earth Sci Front, 10(Suppl): 199–206Google Scholar
  57. Xi D P, Wan X Q, Li G B, Li G. 2019. Cretaceous integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China. Sci China Earth Sci, 62: 256–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yang M H. 2008. Diversity of Buried-Hills and comparison of their hydrocarbon-pooling factors in the Bohai Bay basin (in Chinese). Oil Gas Geol, 29: 623–631Google Scholar
  59. Yang W T, Wang M, Du Y S. 2014. The depositional characteristics from Mesozoic Jiyuan basin with its response to the uplift of Qinling Orogen and Taihang Mountains (in Chinese). Geol Rev, 60: 260–274Google Scholar
  60. Zhang C H, Wang G H, Wang G S, Wu Z W, Zhang L S, Sun W H. 2002. Thrust Tectonics in the Eastern Segment of the Intraplate Yanshan Orogenic Belt, Western Liaoning Province North China (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 76: 64–76Google Scholar
  61. Zhang C, Zhang Y, Li H L. 2006. Late Mesozoic thrust tectonics framework in the western part of the Yanshan Orogenic belt and the Western Hills of Beijing: Characteristics and significance (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 13: 165–183Google Scholar
  62. Zhang F P, Wu Z P, Li W. 2018. Restoration and tectonic reworking of the Mesozoic basin in Dongying Depression (in Chinese). Chin J Geol, 53: 400–419Google Scholar
  63. Zhang Y Q, Dong S W, Zhao Y, Zhang T. 2008. Jurassic tectonics of North China: A synthetic view (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin-Eng Ed, 82: 310–326Google Scholar
  64. Zhang Y Q, Dong S W, Zhao Y. 2007. Jurassic tectonics of North China: A synthetic view (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 81: 1462–1480Google Scholar
  65. Zhang Y Q, Dong S W. 2008. Mesozoic tectonic evolution history of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone, China: Advances and new understanding (in Chinese). Geol Bull China, 27: 1371–1390Google Scholar
  66. Zhang Y Q, Dong S W, Li J J, Cui J J, Shi W, Su J B, Li Y. 2012. The new progress in the study of Mesozoic tectonics of South China (in Chinese). Acta Geosci Sin, 33: 257–279Google Scholar
  67. Zhang S W, Sui F G, Lin H X, Liu H, Zhang S P, Li J Y. 2009. Pre-Paleogene Petroleum Geology and Prospective Evaluation in Bohai Bay Basin (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing Press. 440Google Scholar
  68. Zhai M G, Zhu R X, Liu J M. 2003. Time range of Mesozoic tectonic regime inversion in eastern North China Block. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 47: 151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhai M, Meng Q R, Liu J M. 2004. Geological Features of Mesozoic Tectonic Regime Inversion in Eastern North China and Implication for Geodynamics (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 11: 285–297Google Scholar
  70. Zhao Y, Zhang S H, Xu G. 2004a. Major Tectonic Event in the Yanshanian Intraplate Deformation Belt in the Jurassic (in Chinese). Geol Bull China, 23: 854–863Google Scholar
  71. Zhao Y, Xu G, Zhang S H. 2004b. Yanshanian Movement and conversion of tectonic regimes in East Asia (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 23: 319–328Google Scholar
  72. Zhao Z P. 1963. The Yanshanin Movement in Eastern China (in Chinese). Chin J Geol, 4: 128–138Google Scholar
  73. Zheng Y D, Wang S Z, Wang Y F. 1990. New discoveries of super-large nappe structures and extensional metamorphic core complexes in the Sino-Mongolian border area. Sci China Ser B, 12: 1299–1305Google Scholar
  74. Zheng Y D, Davis G A, Wang C. 2000. Main Mesozoic tectonic events and plate tectonic background in the Yanshan belt (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 74: 289–302Google Scholar
  75. Zheng Y D, Wang T. 2005. Kinematics and dynamics of the Mesozoic orogeny and late-orogenic extensional collapse in the Sino-Mongolian border areas. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 48: 849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zheng J, Dai H. 2018. Subduction and retreating of the western Pacific plate resulted in lithospheric mantle replacement and coupled basin-mountain respond in the North China Craton. Sci China Earth Sci, 61: 406–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhou L H, Li S Z, Liu J Z. 2003. The Yanshanian structural style and basin prototypes of the Mesozoic Bohai Bay basin (in Chinese). Progess Geophy, 18: 692–699Google Scholar
  78. Zhou Y Q, Zhang Z K, Liang W D. 2015. Late Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activities and prototype basin restoration in Eastern Shandong Province, China (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 22: 137–156Google Scholar
  79. Zhu G, Liu C, Gu C, Zhang S, Li Y, Su N, Xiao S. 2018. Oceanic plate subduction history in the Western Pacific Ocean: Constraint from Late Mesozoic evolution of the Tan-Lu Fault zone. Sci China Earth Sci, 61: 386–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhu R X, Chen L, Wu F Y, Liu J L. 2011. Timing, scale and mechanism of the destruction of the North China Craton. Sci China Earth Sci, 54: 789–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhu R X, Xu Y G, Zhu G, Zhang H F, Xia Q K, Zheng T Y. 2012. Destruction of the North China Craton. Sci China Earth Sci, 55: 1565–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhu R X. 2018. Review of the achievements of major research plan on “Destruction of North China Craton” (in Chinese). China Sci Foundation, 32: 282–290Google Scholar
  83. Zong K Q, Klemd R, Yuan Y, He Z Y, Guo J L, Shi X L, Liu Y S, Hu Z C, Zhang Z M. 2017. The assembly of Rodinia: The correlation of early Neoproterozoic (ca. 900 Ma) high-grade metamorphism and continental arc formation in the southern Beishan Orogen, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Precambrian Res, 290: 32–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jichang Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Youliang Feng
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Qing-Ren Meng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fengcheng Wu
    • 4
  • Hao Li
    • 5
  • Haitao Liu
    • 4
  • Feipeng Zhang
    • 6
  • Tianyu Wang
    • 4
  • Guoli Wu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Caineng Zou
    • 4
  • Rixiang Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Geology and GeophysicsCASBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Innovation Academy for Earth ScienceCASBeijingChina
  4. 4.PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and DevelopmentBeijingChina
  5. 5.Institute of Sinopec Exploration and Development ResearchBeijingChina
  6. 6.School of GeosciencesChina University of PetroleumQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations