Carbonate metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle: Implications for cratonic destruction in North China

Review SPECIAL TOPIC: Destruction of craton and subduction of western Pacific plate
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Abstract

The activity of melts and fluids may have played a key role in inducing the destruction of the eastern North China Craton in the early Cretaceous. Carbonate melts are important agents in mantle metasomatism and can significantly modify the physical and chemical properties of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Carbonate metasomatism can be identified by specific geochemical indices in clinopyroxene, such as high Ca/Al and low Ti/Eu ratios. This study presents the spatial and temporal variations of carbonate metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton. Three types of carbonate metasomatism are classified based on the geochemical compositions of clinopyroxene in mantle peridotites. Clinopyroxene formed by Type 1 carbonate metasomatism is characterized by very high Ca/Al ratios (15–70) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.706–0.713). Clinopyroxene derived from Type 2 carbonate metasomatism shows relatively high Ca/Al ratios (5–18) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.703–0.706). However, clinopyroxene resulting from Type 3 carbonate metasomatism has low Ca/Al ratios (5–9) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.702–0.704). Deep (garnet-bearing) and shallow (spinel-bearing) lithospheric mantle beneath the Sulu orogen and surrounding areas in the eastern North China Craton were affected by intense Type 1 carbonate metasomatism before the late Triassic. The deep subduction of the South China Block with its accompanying carbonate sediments was the trigger for Type 1 carbonate metasomatism, which reduced strength of the lithospheric mantle and provided a prerequisite for the destruction of the eastern North China Craton in the early Cretaceous. After the destruction of the eastern North China Craton, the ancient relict lithospheric mantle, represented by spinel harzburgite xenoliths hosted in the late Cretaceous to Cenozoic basalts, only recorded Type 2 carbonate metasomatism. This implies that the lithospheric mantle experienced the intense Type 1 carbonate metasomatism was completely destroyed and not preserved during decratonization. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths hosted in the late Cretaceous to Cenozoic basalts represent the young, fertile lithospheric mantle formed after the cratonic destruction and only a few samples record Type 2 and 3 carbonate metasomatisms. We suggest that carbonate melts derived from the subduction-modified asthenospheric mantle with variable proportions of recycled crustal material was responsible for the Type 2 and 3 carbonate metasomatisms. The carbonate metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Jiaodong Peninsula and surrounding areas is very pervasive and is spatially consistent with the remarkable thinning of lithospheric mantle and giant gold deposits in this region. Therefore, we conclude that carbonate metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle played a crucial part in the modification, destruction and gold deposits in the eastern North China Craton.

Keywords

Cratonic destruction North China Carbonate metasomatism Ca/Al in clinopyroxene Lithospheric mantle 

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Notes

Acknowledgments

Three anonymous reviewers are thanked for their detailed and constructive comments. We are grateful for discussions with Dr. Junfeng Zhang, Chao Wang, Wei Chen, Xiaodong Deng, Zaicong Wang, Rong Xu, Jingliang Guo, Zhanke Li and Haijun Xu, which helped to improve this paper. Master student candidates Yang Liu and Luye Zhang and doctoral student candidate Huai Cheng are thanked for their data collection work. This research was co-supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFC0600103), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41473031, 41530211), the National Program on Key Basic Research Project (Grant No. 2015CB856101) and the MOST Special Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences (Grant No. MSFGPMR01).

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© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources; School of Earth SciencesChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina

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