Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 60, Issue 12, pp 2160–2170 | Cite as

New progress in understanding the origins of modern humans in China

Review

Abstract

Hypotheses concerning the origins of modern humans have been intensively debated, and two competing models, the recent “Out-of-Africa” and “Multiregional Evolution” paradigms, have dominated research and discussions for decades. Evidence from China has played a fundamental role in this debate: regional continuity and replacement by populations in-migrated from Africa have both been suggested and supported mainly by paleoanthropologists and geneticists, respectively. As more evidence has accumulated, new results obtained, and more scholars from various disciplines become involved, supporters of the recent “Out-of-Africa” model agree more or less with the “Multiregional Evolution” model regarding the complex history of modern humans and their interbreeding with other archaic populations (e.g., Neandertals). Recent discoveries of new human fossils, Paleolithic archaeological materials, and ancient DNA evidence in China have yielded a large body of information regarding the formation and development of modern humans in this region. However, controversies continue, including that most molecular biologists insist on the replacement of archaic populations by modern humans dispersed from Africa, while most paleoanthropologists and archaeologists propose an enhanced “Continuity with Hybridization” model. In this paper, we compile new results and progress in China and present the current debates and issues on the origins of modern humans. Finally, we offer several suggestions for future studies.

Keywords

China Origins of modern humans Modern behavior Recent out-of-Africa Continuity with hybridization Interdisciplinary research 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Prof. John W. Olsen for the help in polishing the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41672024), the Chinese Academy of Sciences Strategic Priority Research Program (Grant No. XDPB05), and the National Basic Research Project under the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2014FY110300).

References

  1. Antón S C, Potts R, Aiello L C. 2014. Evolution of early Homo: An integrated biological perspective. Science, 345: 1236828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bae C J, Wang W, Zhao J, Huang S, Tian F, Shen G. 2014. Modern human teeth from Late Pleistocene Luna Cave (Guangxi, China). Quat Int, 354: 169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bar-Yosef O. 2002. The Upper Paleolithic revolution. Annu Rev Anthropol, 31: 363–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bar-Yosef O, Bordes J G. 2010. Who were the makers of the Châtelperronian culture? J Hum Evol, 59: 586–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouzouggar A, Barton N, Vanhaeren M, d’Errico F, Collcutt S, Higham T, Hodge E, Parfitt S, Rhodes E, Schwenninger J L, Stringer C, Turner E, Ward S, Moutmir A, Stambouli A. 2007. 82000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104: 9964–9969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cann R L, Stoneking M, Wilson A C. 1987. Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature, 325: 31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caspari R, Wolpoff M H. 2013. The process of modern human origins: The evolutionary and demographic changes giving rise to modern humans. In: Smith F, Ahern C M, eds. The Origins of Modern Humans: Biology Reconsidered. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons Inc. 355–392Google Scholar
  8. Chu J Y, Huang W, Kuang S Q, Wang J M, Xu J J, Chu Z T, Yang Z Q, Lin K Q, Li P, Wu M, Geng Z C, Tan C C, Du R F, Jin L. 1998. Genetic relationship of populations in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95: 11763–11768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coolidge F L, Wynn T. 2005. Working memory, its executive functions, and the emergence of modern thinking. Camb Archaeol J, 15: 5–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coward F, Gamble C. 2008. Big brains, small worlds: Material culture and the evolution of the mind. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 363: 1969–1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Curnoe D, Ji X P, Herries A I R, Kanning B, Taçon P S C, Bao Z D, Fink D, Zhu Y S, Hellstrom J, Luo Y, Cassis G, Su B, Wroe S, Hong S, Parr W C H, Huang S M, Rogers N. 2012. Human remains from the Pleistocene- Holocene transition of Southwest China suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians. Plos One, 7: e31918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. d’Errico F. 2003. The invisible frontier: A multiple species model for the origin of behavioral modernity. Evol Anthropol, 12: 188–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. d’Errico F, Henshilwood C, Lawson G, Vanhaeren M, Tillier A M, Soressi M, Bresson F, Maureille B, Nowell A, Lakarra J, Backwell L, Julienlo M. 2003. Archaeological evidence for the emergence of language, symbolism, and music: An alternative multidisciplinary perspective. J World Prehistory, 17: 1–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. d’Errico F, Stringer C B. 2011. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures? Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 366: 1060–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. d’Errico F, Vanhaeren M, Barton N, Bouzouggar A, Mienis H, Richter D, Hublin J J, McPherron S P, Lozouet P. 2009. Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 106: 16051–16056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. d’Errico F, Zilhão J, Julien M, Baffier D, Pelegrin J. 1998. Neanderthal acculturation in western Europe? A critical review of the evidence and its interpretation. Curr Anthropol, 39: S1–S44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fu Q, Meyer M, Gao X, Stenzel U, Burbano H A, Kelso J, Pääbo S. 2013. DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110: 2223–2227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fu Q, Li H, Moorjani P, Jay F, Slepchenko S M, Bondarev A A, Johnson P L F, Aximu-Petri A, Prüfer K, de Filippo C, Meyer M, Zwyns N, Salazar-García D C, Kuzmin Y V, Keates S G, Kosintsev P A, Razhev D I, Richards M P, Peristov N V, Lachmann M, Douka K, Higham T F G, Slatkin M, Hublin J J, Reich D, Kelso J, Viola T B, Pääbo S. 2014. Genome sequence of a 45000-year-old modern human from Western Siberia. Nature, 514: 445–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fu Q, Hajdinjak M, Moldovan O T, Constantin S, Mallick S, Skoglund P, Patterson N, Rohland N, Lazaridis I, Nickel B, Viola B, Prüfer K, Meyer M, Kelso J, Reich D, Pääbo S. 2015. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor. Nature, 524: 216–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gao X. 2012. Characteristics and significance of Paleolithic handaxes from China (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 31: 97–112Google Scholar
  21. Gao X. 2013. Paleolithic cultures in China. Curr Anthropol, 54: S358–S370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gao X. 2014. Archaeological evidence for evolutionary continuity of Pleistocene humans in China and East Asia and related discussions (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 33: 237–253Google Scholar
  23. Gao X. 2017. Collaboration and integration among paleoanthropology, archaeology and genetics (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 2017, 36: 131–140Google Scholar
  24. Gao X, Huang W, Xu Z, Ma Z, Olsen J W. 2004. 120–150 ka human tooth and ivory engravings from Xinglongdong Cave, Three Gorges Region, South China. Chin Sci Bull, 49: 175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gao X, Pei S W. 2006. An archaeological interpretation of ancient human lithic technology and adaptive strategies in China. Quat Int, 26: 504–513Google Scholar
  26. Gao X, Wang H M, Pei S W, Chen F Y. 2013. Shuidonggou: Archaeological Excavations and Research Reports for Year 2003–2007 (in Chinese). Beijing: Science PressGoogle Scholar
  27. Gao X, Yuan B Y, Pei S W, Wang H M, Chen F Y, Feng X W. 2008. Analysis of sedimentary-geomorphologic variation and the living environment of hominids at the Shuidonggou Paleolithic site. Chin Sci Bull, 53: 2025–2032Google Scholar
  28. Gao X, Zhang X L, Yang D Y, Shen C, Wu X Z. 2010. Revisiting the origin of modern humans in China and its implications for global human evolution. Sci China Earth Sci, 53: 1927–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Green R E, Krause J, Briggs A W, Maricic T, Stenzel U, Kircher M, Patterson N, Li H, Zhai W, Fritz M H Y, Hansen N F, Durand E Y, Malaspinas A S, Jensen J D, Marques-Bonet T, Alkan C, Prüfer K, Meyer M, Burbano H A, Good J M, Schultz R, Aximu-Petri A, Butthof A, Höber B, Höffner B, Siegemund M, Weihmann A, Nusbaum C, Lander E S, Russ C, Novod N, Affourtit J, Egholm M, Verna C, Rudan P, Brajkovic D, Kucan Ž, Gušic I, Doronichev V B, Golovanova L V, Lalueza-Fox C, de la Rasilla M, Fortea J, Rosas A, Schmitz R W, Johnson P L F, Eichler E E, Falush D, Birney E, Mullikin J C, Slatkin M, Nielsen R, Kelso J, Lachmann M, Reich D, Pääbo S. 2010. A draft sequence of the neandertal genome. Science, 328: 710–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guan Y, Gao X, Wang H M, Chen F Y, Pei S W, Zhang X L, Zhou Z Y. 2011. Spatial analysis of intra-site use at a Late Paleolithic site at Shuidonggou, Northwest China. Chin Sci Bull, 56: 3457–3463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Henshilwood C S, d’Errico F, Watts I. 2009. Engraved ochres from the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa. J Human Evol, 57: 27–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Henshilwood C S, d’Errico F, Yates R, Jacobs Z, Tribolo C, Duller G A T, Mercier N, Sealy J C, Valladas H, Watts I, Wintle A G. 2002. Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle stone age engravings from south Africa. Science, 295: 1278–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Henshilwood C S, Marean C W. 2003. The origin of modern human behavior. Curr Anthropol, 44: 627–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hershkovitz I, Smith P, Sarig R, Quam R, Rodríguez L, García R, Arsuaga J L, Barkai R, Gopher A. 2011. Middle pleistocene dental remains from Qesem Cave (Israel). Am J Phys Anthropol, 144: 575–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hershkovitz I, Weber G W, Fornai C, Gopher A, Barkai R, Slon V, Quam R, Gabet Y, Sarig R. 2016. New Middle Pleistocene dental remains from Qesem Cave (Israel). Quat Int, 398: 148–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huang S. 2015. Interpreting the origin of Human by phylogenetic DNA series. In: Xi H J, Liu W, Chen Z, eds. The Development of Chinese Anthropology in 21st Century (in Chinese). Beijing: Intellectual Property Press. 167–184Google Scholar
  37. Hublin J J, Ben-Ncer A, Bailey S E, Freidline S E, Neubauer S, Skinner M M, Bergmann I, Le Cabec A, Benazzi S, Harvati K, Gunz P. 2017. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens. Nature, 546: 289–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hublin J J, Talamo S, Julien M, David F, Connet N, Bodu P, Vandermeersch B, Richards M P. 2012. Radiocarbon dates from the Grotte du Renne and Saint-Cesaire support a Neandertal origin for the Chatelperronian. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 109: 18743–18748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ji X P, Wu X J, Wu Y, Liu W. 2014. The temporal bony labyrinthine morphology of Homo Longlin 1 from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of South China (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull, 59: 3517–3525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jin C Z, Pan W S, Zhang Y Q, Cai Y J, Xu Q Q, Tang Z L, Wang W, Wang Y, Liu J Y, Qin D G, Lawrence Edwards R, Cheng H. 2009. The Homo sapiens Cave hominin site of Mulan Mountain, Jiangzhou District, Chongzuo, Guangxi with emphasis on its age. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 3848–3856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jin L, Su B. 2000. Natives or immigrants: Modern human origin in east Asia. Nat Rev Genet, 1: 126–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Joordens J C A, d’Errico F, Wesselingh F P, Munro S, de Vos J, Wallinga J, Ankjærgaard C, Reimann T, Wijbrans J R, Kuiper K F, Mücher H J, Coqueugniot H, Prié V, Joosten I, van Os B, Schulp A S, Panuel M, van der Haas V, Lustenhouwer W, Reijmer J J G, Roebroeks W. 2015. Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving. Nature, 518: 228–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ke Y, Su B, Song X, Lu D, Chen L, Li H, Qi C, Marzuki S, Deka R, Underhill P, Xiao C, Shriver M, Lell J, Wallace D, Wells R S, Seielstad M, Oefner P, Zhu D, Jin J, Huang W, Chakraborty R, Chen Z, Jin L. 2001a. African origin of modern humans in East Asia: A tale of 12000 Y chromosomes. Science, 292: 1151–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ke Y H, Su B, Li H Y, Chen L F, Qi C J, Guo X J, Huang W, Jin J Z, Lu D R, Jin L. 2001b. Y-chromosome evidence for no independent origin of modern human in China. Chin Sci Bull, 46: 935–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Klein R G. 1995. Anatomy, behavior, and modern human origins. J World Prehist, 9: 167–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Klein R G. 2009. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins. Chicago: University of Chicago PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Krause J, Fu Q, Good J M, Viola B, Shunkov M V, Derevianko A P, Pääbo S. 2010. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia. Nature, 464: 894–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Krings M, Capelli C, Tschentscher F, Geisert H, Meyer S, von Haeseler A, Grossschmidt K, Possnert G, Paunovic M, Pääbo S. 2000. A view of Neandertal genetic diversity. Nat Genet, 26: 144–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kuhlwilm M, Gronau I, Hubisz M J, de Filippo C, Prado-Martinez J, Kircher M, Fu Q, Burbano H A, Lalueza-Fox C, de la Rasilla M, Rosas A, Rudan P, Brajkovic D, Kucan Ž, Gušic I, Marques-Bonet T, Andrés A M, Viola B, Pääbo S, Meyer M, Siepel A, Castellano S. 2016. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals. Nature, 530: 429–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li F, Kuhn S L, Gao X, Chen F Y. 2013. Re-examination of the dates of large blade technology in China: A comparison of Shuidonggou Locality 1 and Locality 2. J Human Evol, 64: 161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Li F, Kuhn S L, Olsen J W, Chen F, Gao X. 2014. Disparate stone age technological evolution in North China. J Anthropological Res, 70: 35–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Li F, Chen F Y, Wang Y H, Gao X. 2016. Technology diffusion and population migration reflected in blade technologies in northern China in the Late Pleistocene. Sci China Earth Sci, 59: 1540–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Li Y H, Wu M L, Peng S L, Zhou S B. 1984. Human tooth fossils and some mammalian remains from Tobo, Liujiang, Guangxi (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 3: 322–329Google Scholar
  54. Li Z Y, Wu X J, Zhou L P, Liu W, Gao X, Nian X M, Trinkaus E. 2017. Late Pleistocene archaic human crania from Xuchang, China. Science, 355: 969–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liu D C, Wang X L, Gao X, Xia Z K, Pei S W, Chen F Y, Wang H M. 2009. Progress in the stratigraphy and geochronology of the Shuidonggou site, Ningxia, North China. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 3880–3886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liu W, Jin C Z, Zhang Y Q, Cai Y J, Xing S, Wu X J, Cheng H, Edwards R L, Pan W S, Qin D G, An Z S, Trinkaus E, Wu X Z. 2010. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 107: 19201–19206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Liu W, Martinón-Torres M, Cai Y J, Xing S, Tong H W, Pei S W, Sier M J, Wu X H, Edwards R L, Cheng H, Li Y Y, Yang X X, de Castro J M B, Wu X J. 2015. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China. Nature, 526: 696–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Liu W, Schepartz L A, Xing S, Miller-Antonio S, Wu X, Trinkaus E, Martinón-Torres M. 2013. Late Middle Pleistocene hominin teeth from Panxian Dadong, South China. J Human Evol, 64: 337–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liu W, Wu X Z, Li Y Y, Deng C L, Wu X J, Pei S W. 2009. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 256–264Google Scholar
  60. Liu W, Xing S, Wu X L. 2016. Morphological diversities of the late-Middle and Late Pleistocene human fossils in China (in Chinese). Sci Sin Terr, 46: 906–917Google Scholar
  61. Lordkipanidze D, Ponce de León M S, Margvelashvili A, Rak Y, Rightmire G P, Vekua A, Zollikofer C P E. 2013. A complete skull from dmanisi, georgia, and the evolutionary biology of Early Homo. Science, 342: 326–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McBrearty S, Brooks A S. 2000. The revolution that wasn’t: A new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. J Human Evol, 39: 453–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mellars P. 1989. Major issues in the emergence of modern humans. Curr Anthropol, 30: 349–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mellars P A. 1992. Archaeology and the population-dispersal hypothesis of modern human origins in Europe. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 337: 225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mellars P. 2005. The impossible coincidence. A single-species model for the origins of modern human behavior in Europe. Evol Anthropol, 14: 12–27Google Scholar
  66. Mellars P. 2006a. Archeology and the dispersal of modern humans in Europe: Deconstructing the “Aurignacian”. Evol Anthropol, 15: 167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mellars P. 2006b. Going east: New genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia. Science, 313: 796–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mellars P. 2007. Rethinking the human revolution: Eurasian and African perspectives. In: Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, eds. Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archeological ResearchGoogle Scholar
  69. Meyer M, Kircher M, Gansauge M T, Li H, Racimo F, Mallick S, Schraiber J G, Jay F, Prüfer K, de Filippo C, Sudmant P H, Alkan C, Fu Q, Do R, Rohland N, Tandon A, Siebauer M, Green R E, Bryc K, Briggs A W, Stenzel U, Dabney J, Shendure J, Kitzman J, Hammer M F, Shunkov M V, Derevianko A P, Patterson N, Andrés A M, Eichler E E, Slatkin M, Reich D, Kelso J, Pääbo S. 2012. A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual. Science, 338: 222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Morwood M J, Soejono R P, Roberts R G, Sutikna T, Turney C S M, Westaway K E, Rink W J, Zhao J X, van den Bergh G D, Due R A, Hobbs D R, Moore M W, Bird M I, Fifield L K. 2004. Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia. Nature, 431: 1087–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nowell A. 2010. Defining behavioral modernity in the context of neandertal and anatomically modern human populations. Annu Rev Anthropol, 39: 437–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Peng F, Gao X, Wang H M, Chen F Y, Liu D C, Pei S W. 2012. An engraved artifact from Shuidonggou, an Early Late Paleolithic Site in Northwest China. Chin Sci Bull, 57: 4594–4599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peng F, Wang H M, Gao X. 2014. Blade production of Shuidonggou Locality1 (Northwest China): A technological perspective. Quat Int, 347: 12–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Prüfer K, Racimo F, Patterson N, Jay F, Sankararaman S, Sawyer S, Heinze A, Renaud G, Sudmant P H, de Filippo C, Li H, Mallick S, Dannemann M, Fu Q, Kircher M, Kuhlwilm M, Lachmann M, Meyer M, Ongyerth M, Siebauer M, Theunert C, Tandon A, Moorjani P, Pickrell J, Mullikin J C, Vohr S H, Green R E, Hellmann I, Johnson P L F, Blanche H, Cann H, Kitzman J O, Shendure J, Eichler E E, Lein E S, Bakken T E, Golovanova L V, Doronichev V B, Shunkov M V, Derevianko A P, Viola B, Slatkin M, Reich D, Kelso J, Pääbo S. 2014. The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains. Nature, 505: 43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reich D, Green R E, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N, Durand E Y, Viola B, Briggs A W, Stenzel U, Johnson P L F, Maricic T, Good J M, Marques-Bonet T, Alkan C, Fu Q, Mallick S, Li H, Meyer M, Eichler E E, Stoneking M, Richards M, Talamo S, Shunkov M V, Derevianko A P, Hublin J J, Kelso J, Slatkin M, Pääbo S. 2010. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature, 468: 1053–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reich D, Patterson N, Kircher M, Delfin F, Nandineni M R, Pugach I, Ko A M S, Ko Y C, Jinam T A, Phipps M E, Saitou N, Wollstein A, Kayser M, Pääbo S, Stoneking M. 2011. Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. Am J Human Genets, 89: 516–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rodríguez-Vidal J, d’Errico F, Giles Pacheco F, Blasco R, Rosell J, Jennings R P, Queffelec A, Finlayson G, Fa D A, Gutiérrez López J M, Carrión J S, Negro J J, Finlayson S, Cáceres L M, Bernal M A, Fernández Jiménez S, Finlayson C. 2014. A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 111: 13301–13306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sankararaman S, Patterson N, Li H, Pääbo S, Reich D. 2012. The date of interbreeding between neandertals and modern humans. Plos Genet, 8: e1002947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sankararaman S, Mallick S, Dannemann M, Prüfer K, Kelso J, Pääbo S, Patterson N, Reich D. 2014. The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans. Nature, 507: 354–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schepartz L A. 1993. Language and modern human origins. Am J Phys Anthropol, 36: 91–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shea J J. 2011. Homo sapiens is as Homo sapiens Was. Curr Anthropol, 52: 1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shen G J, Wang W, Wang Q, Pan Y J. 2001. U-Series dating of hominid site Ganqian cave at Tubo, Liujiang, Guangxi in South China (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 20: 238–244Google Scholar
  83. Smith F H. 1984. Fossil hominids from the Upper Pleistocene of central Europe and the origin of modern Europeans. In: Smith F, Spencer F, eds. The Origins of Modern Humans. A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence. New York: Liss. 137–209Google Scholar
  84. Smith F H, Falsetti A B, Donnelly S M. 1989. Modern human origins. Am J Phys Anthropol, 32: 35–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Smith F H, Jankovic I, Karavanic I. 2005. The assimilation model, modern human origins in Europe, and the extinction of Neandertals. Quat Int, 137: 7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Soficaru A, Dobos A, Trinkaus E. 2006. Early modern humans from the Pestera Muierii, Baia de Fier, Romania. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 103: 17196–17201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stringer C B. 1992. Reconstructing recent human evolution. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 337: 217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stringer C. 2002. Modern human origins: Orogress and prospects. Philos T R Soc B, 357: 563–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stringer C. 2014. Why we are not all multiregionalists now. Trends Ecol Evol, 29: 248–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stringer C B, Andrews P. 1988. Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans. Science, 239: 1263–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Su B, Xiao J, Underhill P, Deka R, Zhang W, Akey J, Huang W, Shen D, Lu D, Luo J, Chu J, Tan J, Shen P, Davis R, Cavalli-Sforza L, Chakraborty R, Xiong M, Du R, Oefner P, Chen Z, Jin L. 1999. Y-chromosome evidence for a northward migration of modern humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. Am J Human Genets, 65: 1718–1724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sutikna T, Tocheri M W, Morwood M J, Saptomo E W, Jatmiko E W, Awe R D, Wasisto S, Westaway K E, Aubert M, Li B, Zhao J, Storey M, Alloway B V, Morley M W, Meijer H J M, van den Bergh G D, Grün R, Dosseto A, Brumm A, Jungers W L, Roberts R G. 2016. Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia. Nature, 532: 366–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tattersall I. 2004. What happened in the origin of human consciousness? Anat Rec, 276B: 19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Templeton A. 2002. Out of Africa again and again. Nature, 416: 45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Templeton A R. 2007. Genetics and recent human evolution. Evolution, 61: 1507–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tocheri M W, Orr C M, Larson S G, Sutikna T, Jatmiko T, Saptomo E W, Due R A, Djubiantono T, Morwood M J, Jungers W L. 2007. The primitive wrist of Homo floresiensis and its implications for hominin evolution. Science, 317: 1743–1745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Trinkaus E, Churchill S E, Ruff C B, Vandermeersch B. 1999. Long bone shaft robusticity and body proportions of the Saint-Césaire 1 Châtelperronian Neanderthal. J Archaeol Sci, 26: 753–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vernot B, Akey J M. 2014. Resurrecting surviving neandertal lineages from modern human genomes. Science, 343: 1017–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Vernot B, Tucci S, Kelso J, Schraiber J G, Wolf A B, Gittelman R M, Dannemann M, Grote S, McCoy R C, Norton H, Scheinfeldt L B, Merriwether D A, Koki G, Friedlaender J S, Wakefield J, Pääbo S, Akey J M. 2016. Excavating Neandertal and Denisovan DNA from the genomes of Melanesian individuals. Science, 352: 235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wadley L, Hodgskiss T, Grant M. 2009. Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 106: 9590–9594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang C X, Zhang Y, Gao X, Zhang X L, Wang H M. 2009. Archaeological study of ostrich eggshell beads collected from SDG site. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 3887–3895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang S J, Lu H Y. 2016. Taphonomic and paleoenvironmental issues of the Pleistocene loessic Paleolithic sites in the Qinling Mountains, central China. Sci China Earth Sci, 59: 1519–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wang X M, Guan Y, Cai H Y, Costamagno S, Zhang L M, Xu C H, Gao X. 2016. Diet breadth and mortality patterns from Laoya Cave: A primary profile of MIS 3/2 hunting strategies in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwest China. Sci China Earth Sci, 59: 1642–1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wolpoff M. 1999. Paleoanthropology. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  105. Wolpoff M H, Wu X Z, Thorne A G. 1984. Modern Homo sapiens origins: A general theory of hominid evolution involving the fossil evidence from East Asia. In: Smith F H, Spencer F, eds. The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence. New York: Alan R Liss Inc. 411–483Google Scholar
  106. Wolpoff M H, Hawks J, Caspari R. 2000. Multiregional, not multiple origins. Am J Phys Anthropol, 112: 129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wu X Z. 1998. Origin of modern humans of China viewed from craniodental characteristics of Late Homo sapiens in China (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 17: 276–282Google Scholar
  108. Wu X Z. 2005. Discussion on the results of some molecular studies concerning the origin of modern Chinese (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 24: 259–269Google Scholar
  109. Wu X Z. 2006. Evidence of multiregional human evolution hypothesis from China (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 26: 702–709Google Scholar
  110. Wu X Z. 2014. The Place of Dali cranium in human evolution. (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 33:405–426Google Scholar
  111. Wu X J, Crevecoeur I, Liu W, Xing S, Trinkaus E. 2014. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 111: 10509–10513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wu X Z, Xu X. 2016. The origin of modern humans in China viewed from the paleolithic data and Daoxian human fossils (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 35: 1–13Google Scholar
  113. Yang B. 2014. More than 60% Han are descendent of 5 super-ancestors (in Chinese). Chongqing Evening News, 8–11, A4Google Scholar
  114. Zhang S Q, Li Z Y, Zhang Y, Gao X. 2009. Mortality profiles of the large herbivores from the Lingjing Xuchang Man Site, Henan Province and the early emergence of the modern human behaviors in East Asia. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 3857–3863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang S Q, Li Z Y, Zhang Y, Gao X. 2012. Skeletal element distributions of the large herbivores from the Lingjing site, Henan Province, China. Sci China Earth Sci, 55: 246–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang S Q, Zhang Y, Li J S, Gao X. 2016. The broad-spectrum adaptations of hominins in the later period of Late Pleistocene of China—Perspectives from the zooarchaeological studies. Sci China Earth Sci, 59: 1529–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhang X M, Qi X B, Yang Z H, Serey B, Sovannary T, Bunnath L, Seang Aun H, Samnom H, Zhang H, Lin Q, van Oven M, Shi H, Su B. 2013. Analysis of mitochondrial genome diversity identifies new and ancient maternal lineages in Cambodian aborigines. Nat Commun, 4: 2599Google Scholar
  118. Zhang X M, Liao S Y, Qi X B, Liu J W, Kampuansai J, Zhang H, Yang Z H, Serey B, Sovannary T, Bunnath L, Seang Aun H, Samnom H, Kangwanpong D, Shi H, Su B. 2015. Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent. Sci Rep, 5: 15486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhang Y, Wang C X, Zhang S Q, Gao X. 2009a. A zooarchaeological study of bone assemblages from the Ma’anshan Paleolithic site. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 53: 395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhang Y, Wang C X, Zhang S Q, Gao X. 2009b. Cut marks and terminal Pleistocene hominids in the Ma’anshan site: Evidence for meat-eating. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 3872–3879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhang Y, Zhang S Q, Xu X, Liu D C, Wang C X, Pei S W, Wang H M, Gao X. 2013. Zooarchaeological perspective on the Broad Spectrum Revolution in the Pleistocene-Holocene transitional period, with evidence from Shuidonggou Locality 12, China. Sci China Earth Sci, 56: 1487–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhao L X, Zhang L Z, Du B P, Nian X M, Zheng Y W, Zhang Z W, Wang C B, Wang X J, Cai H Y. 2016. New discovery of human fossils and associated mammal fauna from Mawokou Cave in Bijie, Guizhou Province of southern China (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 35: 24–35Google Scholar
  123. Zhou Z Y, Guan Y, Gao X, Wang C X. 2013. Heat treatment and associated early modern human behaviors in the Late Paleolithic at the Shuidonggou site. Chin Sci Bull, 58: 1801–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zilhão J. 2006. Aurignacian, behavior, modern: issues of definition in the emergence of the European Upper Paleolithic. In: Bar-Yosef O, Zilhão J, eds. Towards a Definition of the Aurignacian: Proceedings of the Symposium Held in Lisbon. Portugal. Lisbon: Instituto Português de Arqueologia. 53–70Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and PaleoanthropologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of the Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary EcologyUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany

Personalised recommendations