Analysis of emergy-based metabolic efficiency and environmental pressure on the local coupling and telecoupling between urbanization and the eco-environment in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration
- 150 Downloads
We use emergy-based urban metabolism analysis in this study to investigate the local coupling and telecoupling between urbanization and the eco-environment in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. Our analysis encompasses the last 35 years spanning the period between 1980 and 2014. In addition, we analyze urban metabolic efficiency and environmental pressure in these couplings. There are three main conclusions of this study. First, we show that the total metabolic emergy value of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration has increased over the last 35 years, and that external elements have replaced internal ones as the leading contributors to urban metabolism in this region. The proportion of metabolic emergy derived from external elements increased from 30.87% in 1980 to 67.43% in 2014. The emergy extroversion ratio has continued to increase over our study period, while the development of this urban agglomeration had become progressively and more heavily reliant on external elements. Second, over the study period, the metabolic emergy intensity of elements of local coupling and telecoupling in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration has declined at an accelerating rate, from 1.15×1021 Sej/100 million RMB in 1980 to 9.69×1019 Sej/100 million RMB in 2014. This reflects a continuous increase in the economic efficiency of this area. Correspondingly, emergy use per capita increased from 7.8×1015 Sej/person in 1980 to 5.83×1016 Sej/person in 2014, suggesting a gradual rise in the level of social welfare in this urban agglomeration. However, we also observed a consistently elevated environmental loading ratio (ELR) in our analysis in terms of metabolism of local coupling and telecoupling elements. This result indicates that environmental pressure has also increased constantly within the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. Third, our analysis shows that the ELR of metabolic emergy from internal elements increased from 8.30 in 1980 to 43.46 in 2014, while the ratio from external elements increased from 4.15 to 92.03. Thus, we quantitatively investigated the dependency of development within this urban agglomeration on external elements as well as the resultant environmental load. The conclusions of this study provide the basis for quantitative policy-making in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, optimizing economic structures, improving economic efficiency, controlling environmental pollution, and promoting the coordinated development of this region.
KeywordsUrbanization Eco-environment Local coupling and telecoupling Total metabolic emergy value Metabolic emergy intensity Environmental pressure Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work was supported by the Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China: “Coupled mechanism and interactive coercing effects between urbanization and eco-environment in mega-urban agglomerations” (Grant Nos. 41590840 & 41590842).
- Alberti M, Asbjornsen H, Baker L A, Brozovic N, Drinkwater L E, Drzyzga S A, Jantz C A, Fragoso J, Holland D S, Kohler T T A, Liu J J, McConnell W J, Maschner H D G, Millington J D A, Monticino M, Podestá G, Pontius Jr. R G, Redman C L, Reo N J, Sailor D, Urquhart G. 2011. Research on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS): Approach, challenges, and strategies. Bull Ecol Soc Am, 92: 218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Deines J M, Liu X, Liu J. 2015. Telecoupling in urban water systems: An examination of Beijing’s imported water supply. Water Int, 41: 1–20Google Scholar
- Eakin H, De Fries R, Kerr S, Eric F L, Liu J G, Peter J M, Messerli P, Reenberg A, Rueda X, Simon R S. 2014. Significance of telecoupling for exploration of land-use change. Rethinking Global Land Use in an Urban Era. In: Lupp J, ed. Strüngmann Forum Reports. vol. 14. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press. 142–160Google Scholar
- Fang C L, Yang Y M. 2006. Basic laws of the interactive coupling system of urbanization and ecological environment (in Chinese). Arid land Geogr, 29: 1–8Google Scholar
- Fang C L, Zhou C H, Gu C L, Chen L D, Li S C. 2016. Theoretical analysis of interactive coupled effects between urbanization and eco-environment in mega-urban agglomerations (in Chinese). Acta Geogr Sin, 71: 531–550Google Scholar
- Huang J C, Fang C L. 2003. Analysis of coupling mechanism and rules between urbanization and eco-environment (in Chinese). Geogr Res, 22: 211–220Google Scholar
- Kennedy C A, Stewart I, Facchini A, Cersosimo I, Mele R, Chen B, Uda M, Kansal A, Chiu A, Kim K G, Dubeux C, Lebre La Rovere E, Cunha B, Pincetl S, Keirstead J, Barles S, Pusaka S, Gunawan J, Adegbile M, Nazariha M, Hoque S, Marcotullio P J, González Otharán F, Genena T, Ibrahim N, Farooqui R, Cervantes G, Sahin A D. 2015. Energy and material flows of megacities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112: 5985–5990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lan S F. 2002. Emergy Analysis or Eco-Economic System (in Chinese). Beijing: Chemical Industry Press. 40–41Google Scholar
- Li Q, Gu C L. 2015. Dynamic geographical simulation for unban public Safety emergency response (in Chinese). Sci Sin Terr, 45: 290–304Google Scholar
- Li X Y. 2011. Mechanism of coupling, response and adaptation between soil, vegetation and hydrology in arid and semiarid regions (in Chinese). Sci Sin Terr, 41: 721–1730Google Scholar
- Liu J, Hull V, Batistella M, De Fries R, Dietz T, Fu F, Hertel T W, Izaurralde R C, Lambin E F, Li S, Martinelli L A, McConnell W J, Moran E F, Naylor R, Ouyang Z, Polenske K R, Reenberg A, de Miranda Rocha G, Simmons C S, Verburg P H, Vitousek P M, Zhang F, Zhu C. 2013. Framing sustainability in a telecoupled world. Ecol Soc, 18: art26Google Scholar
- Liu Y B, Song X F. 2005. Model and criterion of urbanization and ecological environment coupling (in Chinese). Geogr Res, 25: 408–414Google Scholar
- Odum H T. 1983. Systems Ecology: An introduction. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 25–28Google Scholar
- Zhang S W, Shi P J, Wang Z J. 2012. Analysis of coupling between urbanization and water resource and environment of inland river basin in arid region: A case study of Shiyang river basin (in Chinese). Econ Geogr, 32: 142–148Google Scholar