Homologous temperature of olivine: Implications for creep of the upper mantle and fabric transitions in olivine
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The homologues temperature of a crystalline material is defined as T/T m , where T is temperature and T m is the melting (solidus) temperature in Kelvin. It has been widely used to compare the creep strength of crystalline materials. The melting temperature of olivine system, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, decreases with increasing iron content and water content, and increases with confining pressure. At high pressure, phase transition will lead to a sharp change in the melting curve of olivine. After calibrating previous melting experiments on fayalite (Fe2SiO4), the triple point of fayalite-Fe2SiO4 spinel-liquid is determined to be at 6.4 GPa and 1793 K. Using the generalized means, the solidus and liquidus of dry olivine are described as a function of iron content and pressure up to 6.4 GPa. The change of T/T m of olivine with depth allows us to compare the strength of the upper mantle with different thermal states and olivine composition. The transition from semi-brittle to ductile deformation in the upper mantle occurs at a depth where T/T m of olivine equals 0.5. The lithospheric mantle beneath cratons shows much smaller T/T m of olivine than orogens and extensional basins until the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary where T/T m > 0.66, suggesting a stronger lithosphere beneath cratons. In addition, T/T m is used to analyze deformation experiments on olivine. The results indicate that the effect of water on fabric transitions in olivine is closely related with pressure. The hydrogen-weakening effect and its relationship with T/T m of olivine need further investigation. Below 6.4 GPa (<200 km), T/T m of olivine controls the transition of dislocation glide from  slip to  slip. Under the strain rate of 10-12–10-15 s-1 and low stress in the upper mantle, the (010) slip system (A-type fabric) becomes dominant when T/T m > 0.55–0.60. When T/T m < 0.55–0.60,  slip is easier and low T/T m favors the operation of (100) slip system (C-type fabric). This is consistent with the widely observed A-type olivine fabric in naturally deformed peridotites, and the C-type olivine fabric in peridotites that experienced deep subduction in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terranes. However, the B-type fabric will develop under high stress and relatively low T/T m . Therefore, the homologues temperature of olivine established a bridge to extrapolate deformation experiments to rheology of the upper mantle. Seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle beneath cratons should be simulated using a four-layer model with the relic A-type fabric in the upper lithospheric mantle, the B-type fabric in the middle layer, the newly formed A- or B-type fabric near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the asthenosphere dominated by diffusion creep below the Lehmann discontinuity. Knowledge about transition mechanisms of olivine fabrics is critical for tracing the water distribution and mantle flow from seismic anisotropy.
KeywordsOlivine Homologous temperature Lattice preferred orientation Water Seismic anisotropy Upper mantle
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