Advertisement

Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 391–396 | Cite as

Investigation on the efficiency of a silicone antifouling coating in controlling the adhesion and germination of Ulva prolifera micro-propagules on rafts

  • Jing Li
  • Lei Sun
  • ZhiMing Yu
  • XiuXian Song
Research Paper
  • 101 Downloads

Abstract

Prevention of annual “green tides” caused by blooms of the green macroalga Ulva prolifera, which have occurred in the Yellow Sea since 2007, has received much attention. Increasing evidence indicates that micro-propagules on the rafts used for Porphyra yezoensis aquaculture along the coastline of Jiangsu Province in China, were the primary source of these green tides. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a silicone antifouling coating for preventing the adhesion and germination of U. prolifera micro-propagules on bamboo and nylon ropes, which have been used in rafts for P. yezoensis aquaculture. Our results demonstrated that a coating of silicone (Sylgard 184) containing 1.0 wt.% sodium benzoate (NaB) could reduce the adhesion rate to <5% and completely inhibited the growth of U. prolifera propagules on the coated surfaces. Coating bamboo and nylon ropes with NaB-incorporated silicone thus proved a potentially effective method for controlling the initial biomass accumulation of U. prolifera.

Keywords

Ulva prolifera Green tide Silicone Sodium benzoate Biofouling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41276115), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA11020302), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB428706).

References

  1. Al-Juhni A A, Newby B Z. 2006. Incorporation of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate into silicone coatings and subsequent leaching of the compound from the incorporated coatings. Prog Org Coat, 56: 135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Callow M E. 1986. Fouling Algae from “In-service” Ships. Botanica Marina, 29: 351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Callow M E, Callow J A, Pickett-Heaps J D, Wetherbee R. 1997. Primary adhesion of Enteromorpha (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) propagules: Quantitative settlement studies and video microscopy1. J Phycol, 33: 938–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen M L, Qu Y Y, Yang L, Gao H. 2008. Structures and antifouling properties of low surface energy non-toxic antifouling coatings modified by nano-SiO2 powder. Sci China Ser B-Chem, 51: 848–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dinning A J, Al-Adham I S I, Eastwood I M, Austin P, Collier P J. 1998. Pyrithione biocides as inhibitors of bacterial ATP synthesis. J Appl Microbiol, 85: 141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gui T J, Wang K. 2010. The present situation and development trend of low surface matine antifouling coating (in Chinese). Modern Paint Finishing, 13: 32–35Google Scholar
  7. Guillard R R L, Hargraves P E. 1993. Stichochrysis immobilis is a diatom, not a chrysophyte. Phycologia, 32: 234–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haque H, Cutright T J, Newby B M Z. 2005. Effectiveness of sodium benzoate as a freshwater low toxicity antifoulant when dispersed in solution and entrapped in silicone coatings. Biofouling, 21: 109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Krång A S, Dahlström M. 2006. Effects of a candidate antifouling compound (medetomidine) on pheromone induced mate search in the amphipod Corophium volutator. Mar Pollut Bull, 52: 1776–1783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lüning K, Pang S. 2003. Mass cultivation of seaweeds: Current aspects and approaches. J Appl Phycol, 15: 115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lejars M, Margaillan A, Bressy C. 2012. Fouling release coatings: A nontoxic alternative to biocidal antifouling coatings. Chem Rev, 112: 4347–4390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li J, Sun L, Song X X, Yu Z M. 2015. Removal of microscopic propagule and its germination of Ulva Prolifera with modified clay (in Chinese). J Oceanol Limn, 46: 345–350Google Scholar
  13. Lindner E. 1992. A low surface free energy approach in the control of marine biofouling. Biofouling, 6: 193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu D Y, Keesing J K, Dong Z J, Zhen Y, Di B D, Shi Y J, Fearns P, Shi P. 2010. Recurrence of the world’s largest green-tide in 2009 in Yellow Sea, China: Porphyra yezoensis aquaculture rafts confirmed as nursery for macroalgal blooms. Mar Pollut Bull, 60: 1423–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu D Y, Keesing J K, Xing Q U, Shi P. 2009. World’s largest macroalgal bloom caused by expansion of seaweed aquaculture in China. Mar Pollut Bull, 58: 888–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu D Y, Keesing J K, He P, Wang Z, Shi Y J, Wang Y J. 2013. The world’s largest macroalgal bloom in the Yellow Sea, China: Formation and implications. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci, 129: 2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu F, Pang S J, Chopin T, Gao S Q, Shan T F, Zhao X B, Li J. 2013. Understanding the recurrent large-scale green tide in the Yellow Sea: Temporal and spatial correlations between multiple geographical, aquacultural and biological factors. Mar Environ Res, 83: 38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu M, Dong Y, Zhao Y, Zhang G T, Zhang W C, Xiao T. 2011. Structures of bacterial communities on the surface of Ulva prolifera and in seawaters in an Ulva blooming region in Jiaozhou Bay, China. World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 27: 1703–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Naimie C E, Ann Blain C, R. Lynch D. 2001. Seasonal mean circulation in the Yellow Sea—A model-generated climatology. Continental Shelf Res, 21: 667–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nair B. 2000. Final report on the safety assessment of benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate. Int J Toxicol, 20: 23–50Google Scholar
  21. Qiao F L, Ma D Y, Zhu M Y, Li R X, Zhang J Y, Yu H J. 2008. Basic conditions of the 2008 algal blooming in the Yellow Sea and scientific response (in Chinese). Adv Mar Sci, 26: 409–410Google Scholar
  22. Sagoo S K, Board R, Roller S. 2002. Chitosan potentiates the antimicrobial action of sodium benzoate on spoilage yeasts. Lett Appl Microbiol, 34: 168–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shang Z T, Jiang M S, Pu M J. 2008. Analysisi of genera situations of laver culture in Jiangsu Province and its climatic suitability (in Chinese). J Anhui Agri Sci, 36: 5315–5319Google Scholar
  24. Shi H, Chen X l, Shi J G, Liu Y L, Wang L M. 2009. Incorporation of NaB and PDMS antifouling coatings (in Chinese). New Chem Mater, 37: 44–45, 82Google Scholar
  25. Stanley M S, Callow M E, Callow J A. 1999. Monoclonal antibodies to adhesive cell coat glycoproteins secreted by zoospores of the green alga Enteromorpha. Planta, 210: 61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stupak M E, Garciá M T, Pérez M C. 2003. Non-toxic alternative compounds for marine antifouling paints. Int Biodeter Biodegr, 52: 49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang J F, Jiang P, Cui Y L, Li N, Wang M Q, Lin H Z, He P M, Qin S. 2010. Molecular analysis of green-tide-forming macroalgae in the Yellow Sea. Aquatic Bot, 93: 25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang X M, Wang H J, Wang L, Liu D L. 2004. Non-toxic low surface energy antifouling coatings (in Chinese). Paint Coat Ind, 34: 40–43+63Google Scholar
  29. Ye N H, Zhang X W, Mao Y Z, Liang C W, Xu D, Zou J, Zhuang Z M, Wang Q Y. 2011. “Green tides” are overwhelming the coastline of our blue planet: Taking the world’s largest example. Ecol Res, 26: 477–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lei Sun
    • 4
  • ZhiMing Yu
    • 1
    • 2
  • XiuXian Song
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of OceanologyChina Academy of ScienceQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental ScienceQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  3. 3.College of Earth SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations