Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 59, Issue 8, pp 1652–1664 | Cite as

Improved data gap-filling schemes for estimation of net ecosystem exchange in typical East-Asian croplands

Open Access
Research Paper

Abstract

The estimation of carbon exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere suffers unavoidable data gaps in eddy-covariance technique, especially for short-living and fast-growing croplands. In this study we developed a modified gap-filling scheme introducing a leaf area index factor as the vegetation status information based on the conventional light response function for two East-Asian cropland sites (rice and potatoes). This scheme’s performance is comparable to the conventional time window scheme, but has the advantage when the gaps are large compared to the total length of the time series. To investigate how the time binning approach performs for fast-growing croplands, we tested different widths of the time window, showing that a four-day window for the potato field and an eight-day time window for the rice field perform the best. The insufficiency of the conventional temperature binning approach was explained as well as the influence of vapor pressure deficit. We found that vapor pressure deficit plays a minor role in both the potato and the rice fields under Asian monsoon weather conditions with the exception of the early pre-monsoon growing stage of the potatoes. Consequently, we recommend using the conventional time-window scheme together with our new leaf-light response function to fill data gaps of net ecosystem exchange in fast-growing croplands.

Keywords

Eddy-covariance Gap-filling Net ecosystem exchange LAI 

References

  1. Ammann C, Flechard C, Leifeld J, Neftel A, Fuhrer J. 2007. The carbon budget of newly established temperate grassland depends on management intensity. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 121: 5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldocchi D D. 2003. Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems: Past, present and future. Glob Change Biol, 9: 479–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldocchi D, Falge E, Gu L, Olson R, Hollinger D, Running S, Anthoni P, Bernhofer C, Davis K, Evans R, Fuentes J, Goldstein A, Katul G, Law B, Lee X, Malhi Y, Meyers T, Munger W, Oechel W, Paw K T, Pilegaard K, Schmid H P, Valentini R, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, and Wofsy S. 2001. FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 82: 2415–2434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bassow S L, Bazzaz F A. 1998. How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous tree species. Ecology, 79: 2660–2675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beziat P, Ceschia E, Dedieu G. 2009. Carbon balance of a three crop succession over two croplandsites in South West France. Agric For Meteorol, 149: 1628–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Du Q, Liu H. 2013. Seven years of carbon dioxide exchange over a degraded grassland and a cropland with maize ecosystems in a semiarid area of China. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 173: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eigenmann R, Kalthoff N, Foken T, Dorninger M, Kohler M, Legain D, Pigeon G, Piguet B, Schuttemeyer D, Traulle O. 2011. Surface energy balance and turbulence network during COPS. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 137: 57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Falge E, Baldocchi D, Olson R, Anthoni P, Aubinet M, Bernhofer C, Burba G, Ceulemans R, Clement R, Dolman H, Granier A, Gross P, Grunwald T, Hollinger D, Jensen N O, Katul G, Keronen P, Kowalski A, Lai C T, Law B E, Meyers T, Moncrieff H, Moors E, Munger J W, Pilegaard K, Rannik U, Rebmann C, Suyker A, Tenhunen J, Tu K, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S. 2001. Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange. Agric For Meteorol, 107: 43–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Falge E, Baldocchi D, Tenhunen J, Aubinet M, Bakwin P, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Burba G, Clement R, Davis K J, Elbers J A, Goldstein A H, Grelle A, Granier A, Guomundsson J, Hollinger D, Kowalski A S, Katul G, Law B E, Malhi Y, Meyers T, Monson R K, Munger J, Oechel W, Paw UKT, Pilegaard K, Rannik U, Rebmann C, Suyker A, Valentini R, Wilson K, Wofsy S. 2002. Seasonality of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production as derived from FLUXNET measurements. Agric For Meteorol, 113: 53–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Foken T, Wichura B. 1996. Tools for quality assessment of surface-based flux measurements. Agric For Meteorol, 78: 83–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Foken T, Göckede M, Mauder M, Mahrt L, Amiro B D, Munger J W. 2004. Post-field data quality control. In: Lee X, Massman W J, Law B, eds. Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 181–208Google Scholar
  12. Gonzalez-Sanpedro M C, Le Toan T, Moreno J, Kergoat L, Rubio E. 2008. Seasonal variations ofleafarea index ofagricultural fields retrieved from Landsat data. Remote Sens Environ, 112: 810–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gove J, Hollinger D. 2006. Application of a dual unscented Kalman filter for simultaneous state and parameter estimation in problems of surfaceatmosphere exchange. J Geophys Res, 111: D08S07CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greco S, Baldocchi D D. 1996. Seasonal variations of CO2 and water vapour exchange rates over a temperate deciduous forest. Glob Change Biol, 2: 183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hui D, Wan S, Su B, Katul G, Monson R, Luo Y. 2004. Gap-filling missing data in eddy covariance measurements using multiple imputation (MI) for annual estimations. Agric For Meteorol, 121: 93–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jiang B, Liang S, Wang J, Xiao Z. 2010. Modeling MODIS LAI time series using three statistical methods. Remote Sens Environ, 114: 1432–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kwon H, Kim J, Hong J, Lim J H. 2010. Influence of the Asian monsoon on net ecosystem carbon exchange in two major ecosystems in Korea. Biogeosciences, 7: 1493–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lasslop G, Reichstein M, Papale D, Richardson A D, Arneth A, Barr A, Stoy P, Wohlfahrt G. 2010. Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: Critical issues and global evaluation. Glob Change Biol, 16: 187–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Legates D R, McCabe G J. 1999. Evaluating the use of “goodness-of-fit” measures in hydrologic and hydroclimatic model validation. Water Resour Res, 35: 233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lei H M, Yang D W. 2010. Seasonal and interannual variations in carbon dioxide exchange over a cropland in the North China Plain. Glob Change Biol, 16: 2944–2957Google Scholar
  21. Li L, Vuichard N, Viovy N, Ciais P, Wang T, Ceschia E, Jans W, Wattenbach M, Beziat P, Gruenwald T, Lehuger S, Bernhofer C. 2011. Importance of crop varieties and management practices: Evaluation of a process-based model for simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize (Zea mays L.) sites. Biogeosciences, 8: 1721–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lindner S, Otieno D, Lee B, Xue W, Arnhold S, Kwon H, Huwe B, Tenhunen J. 2015. Carbon dioxide exchange and its regulation in the main agroecosystems ofHaean catchment in South Korea. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 199: 132–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lloyd J, Taylor J A. 1994. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Funct Ecol, 8: 315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lüers J, Detsch F, Zhao P. 2014. Application of a multi-step error filter for post-processing atmospheric flux and meteorological basic data. Work Report 58. Bayreuth: University of Bayreuth, Department of MicrometeorologyGoogle Scholar
  25. Mauder M, Foken T. 2011. Documentation and instruction manual of the eddy covariance software package TK3. Work Report 46. Bayreuth: University of Bayreuth, Department of MicrometeorologyGoogle Scholar
  26. Mauder M, Liebethal C, Göckede M, Leps J P, Beyrich F, Foken T. 2006. Processing and quality control of flux data during LITFASS-2003. Bound Lay Meteorol, 121: 67–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mauder M, Oncley S P, Vogt R, Weidinger T, Riberio L, Bernhofer C, Foken T, Kohsiek W, DeBruin H, Liu H. 2007. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods. Bound Lay Meteorol, 123: 29–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mauder M, Foken T, Clement R, Elbers J A, Eugster W, Grunwald T, Heusinkveld B, and Kolle O. 2008. Quality control of CarboEurope flux data~Part 2: Inter-comparison of eddy-covariance software. Biogeosciences, 5: 451462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Michaelis L, Menten M. 1913. Die Kinetik der Invertinwirkung. Biochem Z, 49: 333–369Google Scholar
  30. Migliavacca M, Galvagno M, Cremonese E, Rossini M, Meroni M, Sonnentag O, Cogliati S, Manca G, Diotri F, Busetto L, Cescatti A, Colombo R, Fava F, Morra di Cella U, Pari E, Siniscalco C, Richardson A. 2011. Using digital repeat photography and eddy covariance data to model grassland phenology and photosynthetic CO2 uptake. Agric For Meteorol, 151: 1325–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Moffat A M, Papale D, Reichstein M, Hollinger D Y, Richardson A D, Barr A G, Beckstein C, Braswell B H, Churkina G, Desai A R, Falge E, Gove J H, Heimann M, Hui D, Jarvis A J, Kattge J, Noormets A, Stauch V J. 2007. Comprehensive comparison of gap-filling techniques for eddy covariance net carbon fluxes. Agric For Meteorol, 147: 209–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oncley S P, Foken T, Vogt R, Kohsiek W, DeBruin H, Bernhofer C, Christen A, van Gorsel E, Grantz D, Feigenwinter C, Lehner I, Liebethal C, Liu H, Mauder M, Pitacco A, Riberio L, Weidinger T. 2007. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part I: Overview and energy balance. Bound Lay Meteorol, 123: 1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Otieno D, Wartinger M, Nishiwaki A, Hussain M, Muhr J, Borken W, Lischeid G. 2009. Responses of CO2 exchange and primary production of the ecosystem components to environmental changes in a mountain peatland. Ecosystems, 12: 590–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Papale D. 2012. Data gap filling. In: Aubinet M, Vesala T, Papale D eds. Eddy Covariance: A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis. Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York: Springer. 159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Papale D, Valentini R. 2003. A new assessment of European forests carbon exchanges by eddy fluxes and artificial neural network spatialization. Glob Change Biol, 9: 525–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Papale D, Reichstein M, Aubinet M, Canfora E, Bernhofer C, Kutsch W, Longdoz B, Rambal S, Valentini R, Vesala T, Yakir D. 2006. Towards a standardized processing ofNet Ecosystem Exchange measured with eddy covariance technique: Algorithms and uncertainty estimation. Biogeosciences, 3: 571–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reichstein M, Falge E, Baldocchi D, Papale D, Aubinet M, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Buchmann N, Gilmanov T, Granier A, Grunwald T, Havrankova K, Ilvesniemi H, Janous D, Knohl A, Laurila T, Lohila A, Loustau D, Matteucci G, Meyers T, Miglietta F, Ourcival J M, Pumpanen J, Rambal S, Rotenberg E, Sanz M, Tenhunen J, Seufert G, Vaccari F, Vesala T, Yakir D, Valentini R. 2005. On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: Review and improved algorithm. Glob Change Biol, 11: 1424–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Richardson A D, Hollinger D Y. 2007. A method to estimate the additional uncertainty in gap-filled NEE resulting from long gaps in the CO2 flux record. Agric For Meteorol, 147: 199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ruppert J, Mauder M, Thomas C, Lüers J. 2006. Innovative gap-filling strategy for annual sums of CO2 net ecosystem exchange. Agric For Meteorol, 138: 5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saxe H, Cannell M G R, Johnsen O, Ryan M G, Vourlitis G. 2001. Tree and forest functioning in response to global warming. New Phytol, 149: 369–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stoy P C, Katul G G, Siqueira M, Juang J Y, Novick K A, Uebelherr J M, Oren R. 2006. An evaluation of models for partitioning eddy covariancemeasured net ecosystem exchange into photosynthesis and respiration. Agric For Meteorol, 141: 2–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Suyker A E, Verma S B, Burba G G, Arkebauer T J. 2005. Gross primary production and ecosystem respiration of irrigated maize and irrigated soybean during a growing season. Agric For Meteorol, 131: 180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Taylor K E. 2001. Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram. J Geophys Res, 106: 7183–7192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xing Z, Bourque C P A, Meng F, Zha T, Cox R M, Swift D E. 2007. A simple net ecosystem productivity model for gap filling of tower-based fluxes: An extension of Landsberg’s equation with modifications to the light interception term. Ecol Model, 206: 250–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhao P, Lüers J, Olesch J, Foken T. 2011. Documentation of the observation period, 12 May to 8 November 2010, Haean, South Korea. Work Report 45. Bayreuth: University ofBayreuth, DepartmentofMicrometeorologyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrometeorologyUniversity of BayreuthBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institute of EcologyUniversity of InnsbruckViennaAustria
  3. 3.Member of Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER)University of BayreuthBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations