Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 56, Issue 12, pp 2045–2055 | Cite as

Multiple-aged granitoids and related tungsten-tin mineralization in the Nanling Range, South China

  • Jun ChenEmail author
  • RuCheng Wang
  • JinChu Zhu
  • JianJun Lu
  • DongSheng Ma
Research Paper


The Nanling metallogenic belt in South China is characterized by well-developed tungsten-tin mineralization related to multiple-aged granitoids. This belt is one of the 5 key prospecting and exploration areas among the 19 important metallogenic targets in China. Important progress has been made in recent years in understanding the Nanling granitoids and associated mineralization, and this paper introduces the latest major findings as follows: (1) there exists a series of Caledonian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian W-Sn-bearing granites; (2) the Sn-bearing Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range form an NE-SW trending aluminous A-type granite belt that stretches over 350 km. The granites typically belong to the magnetite series, and dioritic micro-granular enclaves with mingling features are very common; (3) the Early Yanshanian Sn- and W-bearing granites possess different petrological and geochemical features to each other: most Sn-bearing granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous biotite (hornblende) granites, with zircon ɛHf(t) values of ca. −2 to −8, whereas most W-bearing granites are peraluminous two-mica granites or muscovite granites with ɛHf(t) values of ca. −8 to −12; (4) based on the petrology and geochemistry of the W-Sn-bearing granites, mineralogical studies have shown that common minerals such as titanite, magnetite, and biotite may be used as indicators for discriminating the mineralizing potential of the Sn-bearing granites. Similarly, W-bearing minerals such as wolframite may indicate the mineralizing potential of the W-bearing granites. Future studies should be focused on examining the internal relationships between the multiple-aged granites in composite bodies, the metallogenic peculiarities of multiple-aged W-Sn-bearing granites, the links between melt evolution and highly evolved ore-bearing felsic dykes, and the connections between granite domes and mineralization.


Nanling Range tungsten-bearing granites tin-bearing granites mineralizing potential ore-forming peculiarities 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bastos Neto A C, Pereira V P, Ronchi L H, et al. 2009. The world-class Sn, Nb, Ta, F (Y, REE, Li) deposit and the massive cryolite associated with the albite-enriched facies of the Madeira A-type granite, Pitinga mining district, Amazonas State, Brazil. Can Mineral, 47: 1329–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhalla P, Holtz F, Linnen R L, et al. 2005. Solubility of cassiterite in evolved granitic melts: Effect of T, fO2, and additional volatiles. Lithos, 80: 387–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blevin P L. 2004. Redox and compositional parameters for interpreting the granitoid metallogeny of eastern Australia: Implications for gold-rich ore systems. Resour Geol, 54: 241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai M H, Che K X, Qu W J, et al. 2006. Geological characteristics and Re-Os dating of molybdenite in Hehuaping tin-polymetallic deposit, southern Hunan Province (in Chinese). Mineral Deposits, 25: 263–267Google Scholar
  5. Che X D. 2011. Mineralogical and experimental constraints on crystallization behaviors of tungsten in granitic system (in Chinese). Doctoral Dissertation. Nanjing: Nanjing UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. Che X D, Linnen R L, Wang R C, et al. 2013. Tungsten solubility in evolved granitic melts: An evaluation of magmatic wolframite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 106: 84–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen J, Halls C, Stanley C J. 1992. Mineral association and mineralogical criteria for the formation condition of a B-F-Sn-Bi skarn in Damoshan, Gejiu tin field, Southwest China. Chin J Geochem, 11: 140–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen J, Lu J J, Chen W F, et al. 2008. W-Sn-Nb-Ta-bearing granites in the Nanling Range and their relationship to metallogengesis (in Chinese). Geol J China Univ, 14: 459–473Google Scholar
  9. Chen J, Wang R C, Zhou J P, et al. 2000. Tin Geochemistry (in Chinese). Nanjing: Nanjing University Press. 320Google Scholar
  10. Chen Y C, Bei Y F, Zhang H L, et al. 1989. Geology of Non-ferrous and Rare-metal Deposits Related to Mesozoic Granitoids in Nanling Range (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 507Google Scholar
  11. Chen Y C, Mao J W. 1995. Ore Deposit Series and Mineralizing Histories in Northern Guangxi (in Chinese). Nanning: Guangxi Science and Technology Press. 433Google Scholar
  12. Cheng S B, Fu J M, Xu D M, et al. 2009. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating and geochemical characteristics of Daning batholith in northeastern Guangxi (in Chinese). Geol China, 36: 1278–1288Google Scholar
  13. Cuney M, Marignac C, Weisbrod A. 1992. The Beauvoir topaz-lepidolite albite granite (Massif-Central, France)—The disseminated magmatic Sn-Li-Ta-Nb-Be mineralization. Econ Geol, 87: 1766–1794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DG-NJU (Department of Geology-Nanjing University). 1966. Granitoids of different ages in South China and their metallogenic relations (in Chinese). Beijing: Science and Technology Report of National Science and Technology Committee. I–II: 364Google Scholar
  15. DG-NJU (Department of Geology, Nanjing University). 1981. Granitoids of Different Ages in South China and Their Related Mineralization (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 395Google Scholar
  16. Du S H, Huang Y H. 1984. Hsianghualingite—A new type of magmatic rock. Sci China Ser B, 28: 537–548Google Scholar
  17. Farges F, Linnen R L, Brown G E Jr. 2006. Redox and speciation of tin in hydrous silicate glasses: A comparison with Nb, Ta, Mo and W. Can Mineral, 44: 795–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frost C D, Raemoe O T, Dall’Agnol R. 2007. IGCP project 510—A-type granites and related rocks through time. Lithos, 97: VII–XIIICrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fu J M, Ma C Q, Xie C F, et al. 2004. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of the Jiuyishan composite granite in Hunan and its geological significance (in Chinese). Geotec Metal, 28: 370–378Google Scholar
  20. Gilder S A, Gill J, Coe R S, et a1. 1996. Isotopic and paleomagnetic constraints on the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of south China. J. Geophys Res, 101: 16137–16154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilder S A, Keller G R, Luo M, et al. 1991. Timing and spatial distribution of rifting in China. Tectonophys, 197: 225–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gu J Y. 1982. Morphological zoning of the vein-type tungsten deposits in southern China. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Tungsten Geology. Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 35–45Google Scholar
  23. Guo C L. 2010. Mineralization-related granitoids in Chongtyi-Shangyou in southern Jiangxi and discussion on Mesozoic mineralized granites in the Nanling Range (in Chinese). Doctoral Dissertation. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Geological SciencesGoogle Scholar
  24. Haapala I. 1997. Magmatic and postmagmatic processes in tin-mineralized granites: Topaz-bearing leucogranite in the Eurajoki Rapakivi granite stock, Finland. J Petrol, 138: 1645–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. He Z Y, Xu X S, Zou H B, et al. 2010. Geochronology, petrogenesis and metallogeny of Piaotang granitoids in the tungsten deposit region of South China. Geochem J, 44: 299–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hsu K C (Xu K Q), Liu Y C, Yu S C, et al. 1960. Discovery of granites of the Caledonian age in southern Kiangxi (in Chinese). Geol Rev, 20: 112–114Google Scholar
  27. Hsu K C (Xu K Q), Sun N, Wang T T, et al. 1963a. Investigation on the polycyclic granite intrusions of southern China, with special notice on their ages of intrusions, distribution characteristics, and their genetic relations to mineral deposits (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 43: 1–26Google Scholar
  28. Hsu K C (Xu K Q), Sun N, Wang T T, et al. 1963b. Investigation on the polycyclic granite intrusions of southern China, with special notice on their ages of intrusions, distribution characteristics, and their genetic relations to mineral deposits (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 43: 141–152Google Scholar
  29. Hsü K J, Li J L, Chen H H, et al. 1990. Tectonics of South China—Key to understanding West Pacific geology. Tectonophys, 183: 9–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hua R M, Mao J W. 1999. A preliminary discussion on the Mesozoic metallogenic explosion in East China (in Chinese). Miner Depos, 18: 300–308Google Scholar
  31. Huang H Q, Li X H, Li W X, et al. 2011. Formation of high δ 18O fayalite-bearing A-type granite by high-temperature melting of granulitic metasedimentary rocks, southern China (in Chinese). Geol, 39: 903–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang J Q. 1994. Principle Geotecnonic Units of China (in Chinese). 3rd ed. Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 1287Google Scholar
  33. Huang J Q, Chen T Y. 1986. On the problem of polycyclic mineralization of tungsten and tin deposits in South China (in Chinese). Geol Rev, 32: 138–143Google Scholar
  34. Hung J Q, Ren J X. 1980. Geotecnonic Evolution of China (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 124Google Scholar
  35. IG-CAS (Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Acadmy of Sciences). 1979. Geochemistry of Granitoids in Southern China (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 421Google Scholar
  36. Kalsbeek F, Jepsen H F, Nutman A P. 2001. From source migmatites to plutons: Tracking the origin of ca. 435 Ma S-type granites in the East Greenland Caledonian orogeny. Lithos, 57: 1–21Google Scholar
  37. Kang Z Q, Feng Z H, Yang F, et al. 2012. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of the Limu granite in eastern Guilin, Guangxi (in Chinese). Geol Bull China, 31: 1306–1312Google Scholar
  38. Lehmann B. 1982. Metallogeny of tin: magmatic differentiation versus geochemical heritage. Econ Geol, 77: 50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li G L, Hua R M, Hu D Q, et al. 2010. Petrogenesis of Shilei quartz diorite in southern Jiangxi: Constraints from petrochemistry, trace elements of accessory minerals, zircon U-Pb dating, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 26: 903–918Google Scholar
  40. Li P, Dai T M, Qiu C Y, et al. 1963. K-Ar absolute dating of some pegmatitesand granites from Inner Mongolia and Nanling Range (in Chinese). Sci Geol Sin, (1): 1–9Google Scholar
  41. Li S G. 1942. Where is the Nanling Range (in Chinese)? Geol Rev, 7: 253–266Google Scholar
  42. Li X H, Li W X, Wang X C, et al. 2009. Role of mantle-derived magma in genesis of early Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range, South China: In situ zircon Hf-O isotopic constraints. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 52: 1262–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Li Z X, Li X H. 2007. Formation of the 1300-km-wide intracontinental orogen and postorogenic magmatic province in Mesozoic South China: A flat-slab subduction model. Geology, 35: 179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Linnen R L, Cuney M. 2005. Granite-related rare-element deposits and experimental constraints on Ta-Nb-W-Sn-Zr-Hf mineralization. In: Linnen R L, Samson I M, eds. Rare-element Geochemistry and Mineral Deposits. Geol Ass Can GAC Short Course Notes, 17: 45–67Google Scholar
  45. Linnen R L, Pichavant M, Holtz F, et al. 1995. The effect of fO2 on the solubility, diffusion, and speciation of tin in haplogranitic melt at 850°C and 2 kbar. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 59: 1579–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liu Y. 2011. Crust-mantle interaction of Yanshanian granite magmatism in Qitianling-Daoxian region, Hunan. Doctoral Dissertation (in Chinese). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Geological SciencesGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu Y, Xiao Q H, Geng S F, et al. 2010. Magmatic mingling origin of adamellite: Zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopes evidence of microgranular dioritic enclaves and host rocks from Yangtianhu adamellite of Qitianling, South China (in Chinese). Geol China, 37: 1081–1091Google Scholar
  48. Long B L, Wu S C, Xu H H. 2009. Geological character istics and explora tion potentia l of the XitianW-Sn polymetallic deposit, Hunan Province (in Chinese). Geol Explor, 45: 229–234Google Scholar
  49. Mao J W, Hua R M, Li X B. 1999. A preliminary study of large-scale metallogenesis and large clusters of mineral deposits (in Chinese). Mineral Depos, 18: 291–299Google Scholar
  50. Mao J W, Xie G Q, Guo C L, et al. 2008. Spatial-temporal distribution of Mesozoic ore deposits in South China and their metallogenic settings (in Chinese). Geol J China Univ, 14: 510–526Google Scholar
  51. Mo Z S, Ye B D, Pan W Z, et al. 1980. Geology of Granites in the Nanling Range (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 363Google Scholar
  52. Muir R J, Ireland T R, Weaver S D, et al. 1994. Ion microprobe U-Pb zircon geochronology of granitic magmatism in the western province of the South-Island, New-Zealand. Chem Geol, 113: 171–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. NGRG (Nanling Granitoid Research Group). 1989. Geology of Granitoids of Nanling Region and Their Petrogenesis and Mineralization (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 471Google Scholar
  54. Paul B J, Černý P, Chapman R, et al. 1981. Niobian titanite from the Huron Claim pegmatite, southeastern Manitoba. Can Mineral, 19: 549–552Google Scholar
  55. Pearce J A, Harris N B W, Tindle A G. 1984. Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. J Petrol, 25: 956–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shu L S. 2007. Geological setting of the Nanling Range (in Chinese). In: Zhou X M, ed. Genesis of Late Mesozoic Granites and Lithospheric Evolution in the Nanling Range. Beijing: Science Press. 3–22Google Scholar
  57. Shu X J, Wang X L, Sun T, et al. 2011. Trace elements, U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons from Mesozoic granites in the western Nanling Range, South China: Implications for petrogenesis and W-Sn mineralization. Lithos, 127: 468–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Skirrow R G, Bastrakov E N, Baroncii K, et al. 2007. Timing of iron oxide Cu-Au-(U) hydrothermal activity and Nd isotope constraints on metal sources in the Gawler craton, south Australia. Econ Geol, 102: 1441–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Soper N J. 1986. The Newer Granite problem: A geotectonic view. Geol Mag, 123: 227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stemprok M. 1990. Solubility of tin, tungsten and molybdenum oxides in felsic magmas. Miner Depos, 25:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sun T. 2006. A new map showing the distribution of granites in South Chinaand its explanatory notes (in Chinese). Geol Bull China, 25: 332–335Google Scholar
  62. Takagi T, Tsukimura K. 1997. Genesis of oxidized- and reduced-type granites. Econ Geol, 92: 81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang D H, Tang J X, Ying L J, et al. 2010a. Application of “Five levels+ Basement” modelfor prospecting deposits into depth (in Chinese). J Jilin Univ (Earth Sci), 40: 733–738Google Scholar
  64. Wang R C, Fontan F, Chen X M, et al. 2003. Accessory minerals in the Xihuashan Y-enriched granitic complex, Southern China: A record of magmatic and hydrothermal stages of evolution. Can Mineralt, 41: 727–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang R C, Xie L, Chen J, et al. 2011. Titanite as an indicator mineral of tin mineralizing potential of granites in the middle Nanling Range (in Chinese). Geol J Chin Univ, 17: 368–380Google Scholar
  66. Wang R C, Yu A P, Chen J, et al. 2012. Cassiterite exsolution with ilmenite lamellae in magnetite from the Huashan metaluminous tin granite in southern China. Mineral Petrol, 105: 71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wang R C, Zhu J C, Zhang W L, et al. 2008. Ore-forming mineralogy of W-Sn granites in the Nanling Range: Concept and case study (in Chinese). Geol J Chin Univ, 14: 485–495Google Scholar
  68. Wang Y L, Wang D H, Zhang C Q, et al. 2010b. Molybdenite Re-Os isochron age of Debao Cu-Sn deposit in Guangxi and relation to Caledonian mineralization (in Chinese). Mineral Deposits, 29: 881–889Google Scholar
  69. Whalen J B, Currie K L, Chappell B W. 1987. A-type granites: Geochemical characteristics, discrimination and petrogenesis. Contrib Mineral Petrol, 95: 407–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Williams I S, Chappell B W, Chen Y D, et al. 1992. Inherited and detrital zircons—Vital clues to the granite protoliths and early igneous history of southeastern Australia. Trans Roy Soc Edinb-Earth Sci, 83: 503Google Scholar
  71. Wu J, Liang H Y, Huang W T, et al. 2012. Indosinian isotope ages of plutons and deposits in southwestern Miaoershan-Yuechengling, northeastern Guangxi and implications on Indosinian mineralization in South China. Chin Sci Bull, 57: 1024–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wu S N. 2006. Geological characteristics of the Hehuaping tin-polymetallic deposit in Chenzhou, Hunan Province (in Chinese). Geol Explor, 20: 43–46Google Scholar
  73. Xie L, Wang R C, Chen J, et al. 2009. Primary Sn-rich titanite in the Qitianling granite, Hunan Province, southern China: An important type of tin-bearing mineral and its implications for tin exploration. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 798–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Xie L, Wang R C, Chen J, et al. 2010. Mineralogical evidence for magmatic and hydrothermal processes in the Qitianling oxidized tin-bearing granite (Hunan, South China): EMP and (MC)-LA-ICPMS investigations of three types of titanite. Chem Geol, 276: 53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Xu K Q, Sun N, Wang D Z, et al. 1984. Geology of granites and their metallogenetic relations. In: Xu K Q, Tu G C, eds. Geology of Granites and Their Metallogenetic Relations. Beijing: Science Press. 1–31Google Scholar
  76. Yang F, Li X F, Feng Z H, et al. 2009. 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite from greisenized granite and geological significance in Limu tin deposit (in Chinese). J Guilin Univ Technol, 29: 20–24Google Scholar
  77. Yang M G, Mei Y W. 1997. Major characteristics of the Qin-Hang conjunction and metallogenic belt (in Chinese). Geol Min Res South China, (3): 52–58Google Scholar
  78. Yang Z, Wang R C, Zhang W L, et al. 2013. Skarn-type tungsten mineralization related to the Niutangjie Silurian (Caledonian) granite, Northern Guangxi. Sci China Earth Sci, in pressGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhang F R, Shu L S, Wang D Z, et al. 2009. Discussions on the tectonic setting of Caledonian granitoids in the eastern segment of South China (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 16: 248–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhang R Q. 2010. Geology, geochemistry and ore-forming features of the Hehuaping tin-polymetallic deposit (in Chinese). Master Dissertation. Nanjing: Nanjing UniversityGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhang W L, Wang R C, Lei Z H, et al. 2011. Zircon U-Pb dating confirms existence of a Caledonian scheelite-bearing aplitic vein in the Penggongmiao granite batholith, South Hunan. Chin Sci Bull, 56: 2031–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhao K D, Jiang S Y, Zhu J C, et al. 2010. Hf isotopic composition of zircons from the Huashan-Guposhan intrusive complex and their mafic enclaves in northeastern Guangxi: Implication for petrogenesis. Chin Sci Bull, 55: 509–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhao Z H, Bao Z W, Zhang B Y, et al. 2001. Crust-mantle interaction and its contribution to the Shizhuyuan superlarge tungsten polymetallic mineralization. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 44: 266–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zheng J H, Guo C L. 2012. Geochronology, geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes of the Wangxianling granitic intrusion in South Hunan Province and its geological significance (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 28: 75–90Google Scholar
  85. Zhou X M, Sun T, Shen W Z, et al. 2006. Petrogenesis of Mesozoic granitoids and volcanic rocks in South China: A response to tectonic evolution. Episodes, 29: 26–33Google Scholar
  86. Zhu J C, Chen J, Wang R C, et al. 2008. Early Yanshanian NE trending Sn/W bearing A-type granites in the western-middle part of Nanling Mts. region (in Chinese). Geol J China Univ, 14: 474–484Google Scholar
  87. Zhu J C, Liu W X, Zhou F Y. 1993. Ongonite and topazite in dike no. 431 of Xianghualing district, and their spatial zonation and genetic relationship (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 9: 158–166Google Scholar
  88. Zhu J C, Zhang P H, Xie C F, et al. 2006. The Huashan-Guposhan A-type granitoid belt in western part of Nanling Mountains: Petrology, geochemistry and genetic interpretation (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 80: 529–542Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • RuCheng Wang
    • 1
  • JinChu Zhu
    • 1
  • JianJun Lu
    • 1
  • DongSheng Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Mineral Deposits Research, School of Earth Sciences and EngineeringNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations