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The relationship between the growth process of the ferromanganese crusts in the pacific seamount and Cenozoic ocean evolvement

  • Xuan DingEmail author
  • LianFeng Gao
  • NianQiao Fang
  • WenJun Qu
  • Jian Liu
  • JiangShan Li
Article

Abstract

Base on the Os isotope stratigraphy together with the empirical growth rate models using Co concentrations, the growth ages of the ferromanganese crusts MHD79 and MP3D10 distributed in the seamount of Pacific are confirmed. Through the contrast and research on the previous achievements including ODP Leg 144 and the crusts CD29-2, N5E-06 and N1–15 of the seamount of the Central Pacific, the uniform five growth and growth hiatus periods of them are found, and closely related to the Cenozoic ocean evolvement process. In the Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maximum (PCIM), the rise of the global ocean productivity promoted the growth of the seamount crust; the first growth hiatus (I) of the ferromanganese crust finished. In the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), though the vertical exchange of seawater was weakened, the strong terrestrial chemical weathering led to the input of a great amount of the terrigenous nutrients, which made the bioproductivity rise, so there were no crust hiatuses. During 52–50 Ma, the Early Eocene Optimum Climate (EECO), the two poles were warm, the latitudinal temperature gradient was small, the wind-driven sea circulation and upwelling activity were weak, the terrestrial weathering was also weakened, the open ocean bioproductivity decreased, and the ferromanganese crust had growth hiatus again (II). From early Middle Eocene-Late Eocene, Oligocene, it was a long-term gradually cooling process, the strengthening of the sea circulation and upwelling led to a rise of bioproductivity, and increase of the content of the hydrogenous element Fe, Mn and Co and the biogenous element Cu, Zn, so that was the most favorable stage for the growth of ferromanganese crust (growth periods III and IV) in the studied area. The hiatus III corresponded with the Eocene- Oligocene boundary, is inferred to relate with the global climate transformation, celestial body impact event in the Eocene-Oligocene transition. From the early to the middle Miocene, a large-scale growth hiatus (hiatus period IV) of the ferromanganese crust in the studied area is inferred to relate with temporary warm up climate and ephemeral withdrawal of Antarctic bottom water in the early Miocene. After that, the Antarctic ice sheets extended, the bottom water circumfluence strengthened, the ocean fertility increased, and the once interrupted crust continued to grow in the late Miocene (growth period V).

Keywords

Pacific seamount ferromanganese crust growth period and growth hiatus period Cenozoic ocean evolvement 

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Copyright information

© Science in China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuan Ding
    • 1
    Email author
  • LianFeng Gao
    • 2
  • NianQiao Fang
    • 1
  • WenJun Qu
    • 3
  • Jian Liu
    • 4
  • JiangShan Li
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Marine ScienceChina University of GeosciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Resources and EnvironmentsHebei Polytechnic UniversityTangshanChina
  3. 3.National Geologic Experiment and Test CenterBeijingChina
  4. 4.Guangzhou Marine Geological SurveyGuangzhouChina

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