Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences

, Volume 49, Supplement 2, pp 150–162 | Cite as

Annual variation of carbon flux and impact factors in the tropical seasonal rain forest of xishuangbanna, SW China

  • Zhang Yiping 
  • Sha Liqing 
  • Yu Guirui 
  • Song Qinghai 
  • Tang Jianwei 
  • Yang Xiaodong 
  • Wang Yuesi 
  • Zheng Zheng 
  • Zhao Shuangju 
  • Yang Zhen 
  • Sun Xiaomin 
Article

Abstract

Two years of eddy covariance measurements of above-and below-canopy carbon fluxes and static opaque chamber and gas chromatography technique measurements of soil respiration for three treatments (bare soil, soil+litterfall, soil+litterfall+seedling) were carried out in a tropical seasonal rain forest. In addition, data of photosynthesis of dominant tree species and seedlings, leaf area index, litter production and decomposing speed, soil moisture, soil temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density within the forest were all measured concurrently. Data from January 2003 to December 2004 are used to present annual variability of carbon flux and relationships between carbon flux and impact factors. The results show that carbon flux of this forest presented unusual tendency of annual variation; above-canopy carbon fluxes were negative in the dry season (November–April) and mainly positive in the rainy season, but overall the forest is a carbon sink. Carbon flux has obviously diurnal variation in this tropical seasonal rain forest. Above-canopy carbon fluxes were negative in the day-time and absolute values were larger in the dry season than that in the rainy season, causing the forest to act as a carbon sink; at night, carbon fluxes were mainly positive, causing the forest to act as a carbon source. Dominant tree species have greater photosynthesis capability than that of seedlings, which have a great effect on above-canopy carbon flux. There was a significant correlation between above-canopy carbon flux and rate of photosynthesis of tree species. There was also a significant correlation between above-canopy carbon flux and rate of photosynthesis of seedlings; however, the below-canopy carbon flux was only significantly correlated with rate of photosynthesis of seedlings during the hot-dry season. Soil respiration of the three treatments displayed a markedly seasonal dynamic; in addition, above-canopy carbon fluxes correlated well with soil respiration, litterfall pro-duction, litterfall decomposition rate, precipitation, and soil moisture and temperature. A primary sta-tistical result of this study showed that above-canopy carbon flux in this forest presented carbon source or sink effects in different seasons, and it is a carbon sink at the scale of a year.

Keywords

carbon flux annual variation impact factors tropical seasonal rain forest Xishuangbanna 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Detwiler R P, Hall C A S. Tropical forests and the global carbon cycle. Science, 1988, 239: 42–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Skole D, Tucker C. Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon: satellite data from 1978 to 1988. Science, 1993, 260: 1905–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bolin B, Sukumar R, Ciais P, et al. IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry, Chapter 1: Global Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prentice I C, Farquhar G D, Fasham M J R, et al. The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Chapter 3: IPCC Climate Change 2001, Working Group 1, The Scientific Basis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tans P, White J W C. In the equilibrium aspect, because of some helps that come from the plants. Science, 1998, 281: 183–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kauppi P E, Mielikainen K, Kuusela K. Biomass and carbon budget of European forests, 1971 to 1990. Science, 1992, 256: 70–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dixon R K S, Brown R A, Houghton A M, et al. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science, 1994, 263: 185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Keeling R F, Piper S C, Heimann, M. Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration. Nature, 1996, 381: 218–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keeling C D, Chin J F S, Whorf T P. Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmosphere CO2 measurments. Nature, 1996, 382: 146–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Whittaker R H, Likens G E. The biosphere and man. In: Lieth H, Whittaker R H, eds. Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. New York: Springer, 1975. 305–328Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Malhi Y, Nobre A D, Grace J, et al. Carbon dioxide transfer over a Central Amazonian rain forest. J Geophys Res, 1998, 130(D24): 31593–31612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Houghton R A. Terrestrial carbon storage: Global lessons for Amazonian research. Ciencia e Cultura Sao Paulo, 1997, 49: 58–72Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saleska S R, Miller S D, Matross D M, et al. Carbon in Amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses. Science, 2003, 302: 1554–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tian H, Mellilo J M, Kichilghter D W, et al. Effects of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Nature, 1998, 396: 664–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fan S M, Wofsy S C, Bakwin P S, et al. Atmosphere—biosphere exchange of CO2 and O3 in the Central Amazon forest. J Geophys Res, 1990, 95(D10): 16851–16864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grace J, Lloyd J, McIntyre J, et al. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapour over an undisturbed tropical forest in south-west Amazonia. Glob Change Biol, 1995, 1: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grace J, Lloyd J, Mcintyre J, et al. Carbon dioxide uptake by an undisturbed tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia 1992–1993. Science, 1995, 270: 778–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Philips O, Malhi Y, Higuchi N, et al. Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: Evidence from longterm plots. Science, 1999, 282: 5388–5389Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yasuda Y, Ohtani Y, Watanabe T, et al. Measurement of CO2 flux above a tropical rain forest at Pasoh in Peninsular Malaysia. Agr Forest Meteorol, 2003, 114: 235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goulden M L, Miller S D, Da Rocha H R, et al. Diel and seasonal patterns of tropical forest CO2 exchange. Ecol Appl, 2004, 14(4) Suppl: 42–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vourlitis G L, Filho N P, Hayashi M M S, et al. Effects of meteorological variations on the CO2 exchange of a Brazilian transitional tropical forest. Ecol Appl, 2004, 14(4) Suppl: 89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grace J, Malhi Y, Lloyd J, et al. The use of eddy covariance to infer the net carbon dioxide uptake of Brrazilian rain forest. Glob Change Biol, 1996, 2: 209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zeng Q B, Li Y D, Chen B F, et al. Research and Management of Tropical Forest Ecosystem (in Chinese). Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 1997, 186–190Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li Y D, Wu Z M, Zeng Q B, et al. Estimation of community prosuctivity and net CO2 accumulation of a tropical mountain rain forest in Jianfengling, Hannan Island, China. Acta Phytoecol Sin (in Chinese), 1998, 22(2): 127–134Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen B F, Lin M X, Li Y D, et al. Study on the CO2 grads and flux in near canopy layer of tropical mountain rainforest at Jianfengling, Hainnan Island. Acta Ecologica Sin (in Chinese), 2001, 21(12): 2166–2172Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen B F, Li Y D, Lin M X, et al. Space-time character of CO2 content in tropical mountain rain forest of Jianfengling, Hainan. Acta Ecologica Sin (in Chinese), 2001, 21(12): 2089–2095Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang Y P, Zhao S J, Dou J X, et al. Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of thermal effects in a tropical seasonal rainforest in Xishuangbanna, southwest of China. J Beijing Forestry U (in Chinese), 2004, 26(4): 1–7Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang Y P, Zhao S J, Yu G R, et al. Characteristics of microclimate and CO2 flux above a tropical seasonal rain forest in dry-hot season of Xishuangbanna, southwest of China. Acta Ecologica Sin (in Chinese), 25(10): 2540–2549Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sha L Q, Zheng Z, Tang J W, et al. Soil respiration in tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 2005, 48(2): 189–197Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dou J X, Zhang Y P, Feng Z W, et al. Variation in photosynthetic photo flux density within a tropical seasonal rain forest of Xishuangbanna, South-western China. J Environ Sci, 2005, 17(6): 966–969Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Whitmore T C. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975. 1–282Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chinese Vegetation Committee. Chinese Vegetation (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 1980. 363–397Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ren Y H, Cao M, Tang J W, et al. A comparative study on litterfall dynamics in a seasonal rain forest and a rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Acta Phytoecol Sin (in Chinese), 1999, 23(5): 418–425Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang K Y. Abecedarian analyses on the characteristics and take shape factors of climate in the south of Yunnan. Acta Meteorol Sin (in Chinese), 1966, 33(2): 210–230Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vourlitis G L N, Priante Filho, M M S, Hayashi J D S, et al. Seasonal variations in the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a mature Amazonian transitional tropical forest. Funct Ecol, 2001, 15: 388–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baldocchi D D. Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems—past, present and future. Glob Biol Change, 2003, 9: 479–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lee X H. On micrometeorological observations of surface-air exchange over tall vegetation. Agr Forest Meteorol, 1998, 91: 39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Massman W J, Lee X H. Eddy covariance flux corrections and uncertainties in long-term studies of carbon and energy exchanges. Agr Forest Meteorol, 2002, 113: 121–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang Y, Wang Y. Quick measurement of CO2, CH4 and N2O emission from agricultural ecosystem. Adv Atmos Sci, 2003, 20(5): 842–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang Y S, Liu G R, Wang Y H, et al. Use one improved gas chromatography measuring CO2, CH4 and N2O emission from terrestrial ecosystem. Tech Eq Environ Pollut Control (in Chinese), 2003, 4(10): 84–90Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhang Yiping 
    • 1
  • Sha Liqing 
    • 1
  • Yu Guirui 
    • 2
  • Song Qinghai 
    • 1
    • 4
  • Tang Jianwei 
    • 1
  • Yang Xiaodong 
    • 1
  • Wang Yuesi 
    • 3
  • Zheng Zheng 
    • 1
  • Zhao Shuangju 
    • 1
    • 4
  • Yang Zhen 
    • 1
    • 4
  • Sun Xiaomin 
    • 2
  1. 1.Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Geographic Sciences and National Resources ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations