Antibiotic growth promoter olaquindox increases pathogen susceptibility in fish by inducing gut microbiota dysbiosis
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Low dose antibiotics have been used as growth promoters in livestock and fish. The use of antibiotics has been associated with reduced pathogen infections in livestock. In contrast, antibiotic growth promoter has been suspected of leading to disease outbreaks in aquaculture. However, this phenomenon is circumstantial and has not been confirmed in experimental conditions. In this study, we showed that antibiotic olaquindox increased the susceptibility of zebrafish to A. hydrophila infection. Olaquindox led to profound alterations in the intestinal microbiota of zebrafish, with a drastic bloom of Enterobacter and diminishing of Cetobacterium. Moreover, the innate immune responses of zebrafish were compromised by olaquindox (P<0.05). Transfer of microbiota to GF zebrafish indicated that while the immuo-suppression effect of olaquindox is a combined effect mediated by both OLA-altered microbiota and direct action of the antibiotic (P<0.05), the increased pathogen susceptibility was driven by the OLA-altered microbiota and was not dependent on direct antibiotic effect. Taken together, these data indicate that low level of OLA induced gut microbiota dysbiosis in zebrafish, which led to increased pathogen susceptibility.
Keywordsantibiotic growth promoter pathogen susceptability gut microbiota fish olaquindox
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This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2015CB150605), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272672, 31572633), the Beijing Earmarked Fund for Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System (SCGWZJ 20161104-4), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Public Welfare Research Institute (1610382016013).
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