Advertisement

Science China Life Sciences

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 81–88 | Cite as

The discovery of Qinghaosu (artemisinin) as an effective anti-malaria drug: A unique China story

  • Zengyi ChangEmail author
Open Access
News And Views

Keywords

Malaria Malaria Parasite Chloroquine Quinine Artemisinin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bruce-Chwatt, L.J. (1982). Qinghaosu: A new antimalarial. Br Med J 284, 767–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. China Cooperative Research Group on Qinghaosu and Its Derivatives as Antimalarials. (1982a). Chemical studies on Qinghaosu (artemisinine). J Tradit Chin Med 2, 3–8.Google Scholar
  3. China Cooperative Research Group on Qinghaosu and Its Derivatives as Antimalarials. (1982b). The chemistry and synthesis of Qinghaosu derivatives. J Tradit Chin Med 2, 9–16.Google Scholar
  4. China Cooperative Research Group on Qinghaosu and Its Derivatives as Antimalarials. (1982c). Antimalarial efficacy and mode of action of qinghaosu and its derivatives in experimental models. J Tradit Chin Med 2, 17–24.Google Scholar
  5. China Cooperative Research Group on Qinghaosu and Its Derivatives as Antimalarials. (1982d). Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of qinghaosu and its derivatives. J Tradit Chin Med 2, 25–30.Google Scholar
  6. China Cooperative Research Group on Qinghaosu and Its Derivatives as Antimalarials. (1982e). Studies on the toxicity of qinghaosu and its derivatives. J Tradit Chin Med 2, 31–38.Google Scholar
  7. China Cooperative Research Group on Qinghaosu and Its Derivatives as Antimalarials. (1982f). Clinical studies on the treatment of malaria with qinghaosu and its derivatives. J Tradit Chin Med 2, 45–50.Google Scholar
  8. Eastman, R.T., Fidock, D.A. (2009). Artemisinin-based combination therapies: a vital tool in efforts to eliminate malaria. Nat Rev Microbiol 7, 864–874.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gu, H.M., Lv, B.F., Qu, Z.X. (1980). Antimalarial activities of 25 derivatives of artemisinine against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei (in Chinese). Acta Pharmacol Sin 1, 48–50.Google Scholar
  10. Gu, H.M., Liu, M.Z., Lv, B.F., Xu, J.Y., Chen, L.J., Wang, M.Y., Sun, W.K., Xu, B. ( Hsu, B.), Ji, R.Y. ( Kyi, Z.Y.). (1981). Antimalarial effect and toxicity of methyl-dihydro-artemisinine in animals (in Chinese). Acta Pharmacol Sin 2, 138–144.Google Scholar
  11. Jeremic, D., Jokic, A., Behbud, A., Stefanovic, M. (1973). A new type of sesqiterpenelactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. arteannuin B. Tetrahedron Lett 14, 3039–3042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang, J.B., Li, G.Q., Guo, X.B., Kong, Y.C., Arnold, K. (1982). Antimalarial activity of mefloquine and qinghaosu. Lancet 2, 285–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. JTCM news. (1981). The 4th Meeting of the SWG-CHEMAL to discuss the development of China’s new antimalarial agent qinghaosu and its derivatives. J Tradit Chin Med 1, 112–112.Google Scholar
  14. Kaufman, T.S., Rúveda, E.A. (2005). The quest for quinine: those who won the battles and those who won the war. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 44, 854–885.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Klayman, D.L., Lin, A.J., Acton, N., Scovill, J.P., Hoch, J.M., Milhous, W.K., Theoharides, A.D., Dobek, A.S. (1984). Isolation of artemisinin (Qinghaosu) from Artemisia annua growing in the United States. J Nat Prod 47, 715–717.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Klayman, D.L. (1985). Qinghaosu (Artemisinin): An antimalarial drug from China. Science 228, 1049–1055.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Li, G.Q., Guo, X.B., Jin, R., Wang, Z.C., Jian, H.X., Li, Z.Y. (1982). Clinical studies on treatment of cerebral malaria with qinghaosu and its derivatives. J Tradit Chin Med 2, 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Li, Y., Yu, P.L., Chen, Y.X., Li, L.Q., Gai, Y.Z., Wang, D.S., Zheng, Y.P. (1979). Synthesis of some derivatives of artemisinine (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull 14, 667–669.Google Scholar
  19. Liu, J.F., Fu, X.M., Chang, Z. (2015). Hypoionic shock treatment enables aminoglycosides antibiotics to eradicate bacterial persisters. Sci Rep 5, 14247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu, J.M., Ni, M.Y., Fan, J.F., Tu, Y.Y., Wu, Z.H., Wu, Y.L., Zhou, W.S. (1979). Structure and reaction of Arteannuin (in Chinese). 37, 129–143.Google Scholar
  21. Miller, L.H., Ackerman, H.C., Su, X.Z., Wellems, T.E. (2013). Malaria biology and disease pathogenesis: insights for new treatments. Nat Med 19, 156–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller, L.H., Su, X.Z. (2011). Artemisinin: Discovery from the Chinese herbal garden. Cell 146, 855–858.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Qinghaosu Antimalaria Coordinating Research Group. (1979a). A study on the new antimalaria drug qinghaosu (in Chinese). Chin Pharm J 14, 49–53.Google Scholar
  24. Qinghaosu Antimalaria Coordinating Research Group. (1979b). Antimalaria studies on Qinghaosu. Chin Med J 92, 811–816.Google Scholar
  25. Qinghaosu Coordinating Research Group. (1977). A new sesquiterpene lactone-qinghaosu (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull 22, 142–142.Google Scholar
  26. Qinghaosu Research Group of the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (1979). Crystal structure and absolute configuration of qinghaosu (in Chinese). Sci Sin 11, 1114–1128.Google Scholar
  27. Qinghaosu Research Group of the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (1980). Crystal structure and absolute configuration of qinghaosu, Sci Sin 23, 380–396.Google Scholar
  28. Ross, R. (1898). The role of the mosquito in the evolution of the malaria parasite. Lancet 2: 489–498.Google Scholar
  29. Ross, R., Smyth, M. (1897). On some peculiar pigmented cells found in two mosquitos fed on malarial blood. Br Med J 2, 1786–1788.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmid, G., Hofheinz, W. (1983). Total synthesis of Qinghaosu. J Am Chem Soc 105, 624–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shortt, H.E., Garham, P.C.C. (1948). Pre-erythocytic stages in mammalian malaria parasites. Nature 161, 126–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Su, X.Z., Miller, L.H. (2015). The discovery of artemisinin and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Sci China Life Sci 58, 1175–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thera, M.A., Plowe, C.V. (2012). Vaccines for malaria: How close are we- Annu Rev Med 63, 345–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Tu, Y.Y. (2009). Qinghao and Qinghaosu family drugs (Beijing: Chemical Industry Publisher).Google Scholar
  35. Tu, Y.Y. (2011). The discovery of artemisinin (qinghaosu) and gifts from Chinese Medicine. Nat Med 17, 1217–1220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang, Y., Ezemaduka, A.N., Tang, Y., Chang, Z. (2009). Understanding the mechanism of the dormant dauer formation of C. elegans: From genetics to biochemistry. IUBMB Life 61, 607–612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Winzeler, E.A. (2008). Malaria research in the post-genomic era. Nature 455, 751–756.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. White, N.J. (2008). Qinghaosu (Artemisinin): The price of success. Science 320, 330–334.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu, X.X., Zhu, J., Huang, D.Z., Zhou, W.S. (1983). Studies on structure and syntheses of arteannuin and related compound X. The stereo-controlled syntheses of arteannuin and deoxyarteannuin from arteannuic acid (in Chinese). Acta Chim Sin 41, 574–576.Google Scholar
  40. Zhou, B. (2015). Artemisinin (Qinghaosu): a mesmerizing drug that still puzzles. Sci China Life Sci 58, 1151–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of History and Philosophy of Science, School of Life Sciences, Center for Protein Science, State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene ResearchPeking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations