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Science China Life Sciences

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 474–482 | Cite as

Forms of nitrogen uptake, translocation, and transfer via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A review

  • HaiRu Jin
  • Jie Liu
  • Jing Liu
  • XiaoWei Huang
Open Access
Review

Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligate symbionts that colonize the roots of more than 80% of land plants. Experiments on the relationship between the host plant and AM in soil or in sterile root-organ culture have provided clear evidence that the extraradical mycelia of AM fungi uptake various forms of nitrogen (N) and transport the assimilated N to the roots of the host plant. However, the uptake mechanisms of various forms of N and its translocation and transfer from the fungus to the host are virtually unknown. Therefore, there is a dearth of integrated models describing the movement of N through the AM fungal hyphae. Recent studies examined Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot roots colonized with AM fungi in 15N tracer experiments. In these experiments, the activities of key enzymes were determined, and expressions of genes related to N assimilation and translocation pathways were quantified. This review summarizes and discusses the results of recent research on the forms of N uptake, transport, degradation, and transfer to the roots of the host plant and the underlying mechanisms, as well as research on the forms of N and carbon used by germinating spores and their effects on amino acid metabolism. Finally, a pathway model summarizing the entire mechanism of N metabolism in AM fungi is outlined.

Keywords

arbuscular mycorrhizae arginine nitrogen metabolism nitrogen translocation symbiosis 

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Life ScienceZhejiang Normal UniversityJinhuaChina

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