Science China Life Sciences

, Volume 54, Issue 11, pp 1019–1028 | Cite as

Field evaluation of effects of transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac, cry1C and cry2A rice on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and its arthropod predators

  • XueLiang Xu
  • Yu Han
  • Gang Wu
  • WanLun Cai
  • BenQi Yuan
  • Hui Wang
  • FangZhou Liu
  • ManQun Wang
  • HongXia HuaEmail author
Open Access
Research Papers


The impacts of transgenic Bt rice on target pests and their predators need to be clarified prior to the commercialization of Bt rice. In this study, the percentages of folded leaves of three transgenic Bt rice lines and non-transgenic parental rice line caused by Cnaphalocrocis medinalis were studied over two successive growing seasons. In addition, the population densities, relative abundance and population dynamics of C. medinalis and four species of its natural arthropod predators were investigated at three sites in China. The results showed that rice line significantly affected the percentages of folded leaves and population densities of C. medinalis larvae. Significantly higher percentages of folded leaves were observed on the non-transgenic rice compared with the three transgenic Bt rice on most sampling dates. Significantly higher densities of C. medinalis larvae and higher relative abundance of C. medinalis within phytophages were found on non-transgenic rice compared with three transgenic Bt rice at different sites across the study period. The population dynamics of C. medinalis larvae were significantly affected by rice line, rice line×sampling date, rice line×year, rice line×sampling date×year. However, there was little, if any, significant difference in the relative abundance, population density and population dynamics of the four arthropod predators between the three Bt rice lines and non-transgenic rice. The results of this study indicate that the Bt toxin in transgenic Bt rice can effectively suppress the occurrence of C. medinalis, but has no significant effects on the occurrence of the four predatory arthropod species.


transgenic Bt rice Cnaphalocrocis medinalis population dynamics percentages of folded leaves natural arthropod predator 


  1. 1.
    Cheng J A. Rice Pests. Beijing: China Agricultural Press, 1996Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nathan S S. Effects of Melia azedarach on nutritional physiology and enzyme activities of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Pestic Biochem Phys, 2006, 84: 98–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Su J K, Chu B, Chen W M. Preliminary study on method of determining rice leaf roller’s resistance to insecticides and resistance monitoring. Acta Agr Shanghai, 2003, 19: 81–84Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Su J, Hu C Q, Zhai H L, et al. Establishment of a highly efficient and stable transforming system mediated by Agrobacterium tumefacien in indica rice. Fujian J Agr Sci, 2003, 18: 209–213Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fujimoto H, Itohet K, Yamamoto M, et al. Insect resistant rice generated by introduction of a modified delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nat Biotechnol, 1993, 11: 1151–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheng X, Sardana R, Kaplan H, et al. Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cry1A(b) and cry1A(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1998, 95: 2767–2772PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shu Q Y, Ye G Y, Cui H R, et al. Transgenic rice plants with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis were highly resistant to eight lepidopteran rice pest species. Mol Breeding, 2000, 6: 433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tu J M, Zhang G A, Datta K, et al. Field performance of transgenic elite commercial hybrid rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin. Nat Biotechnol, 2000, 18: 1101–1104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang J K, Hu R F, Scott R, et al. Insect-resistant GM rice in farmers’ fields: assessing productivity and health effects in China. Science, 2005, 308: 688–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen M, Ye G Y, Lu X M, et al. Biotransfer and bioaccumulation of Cry1Ab insecticidal protein in rice plant-brown planthopper-wolf spider food chain. Acta Entomol Sin, 2005, 48: 208–213Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen M, Zhao J Z, Ye G Y, et al. Impact of insect-resistant transgen ic rice on target insect pests and non-target arthropods in China. Insect Sci, 2006, 13: 409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tang W, Chen H, Xu C G, et al. Development of insect-resistant transgenic indica rice with a synthetic cry1C* gene. Mol Breeding, 2006, 18: 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang Y M, Zhang G A, Du J P, et al. Influence of transgenic hybrid rice expressing a fused gene derived from cry1Ab and cry1Ac on primary insect pests and rice yield. Crop Protect, 2010, 29: 128–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen M, Ye G Y, Liu Z C, et al. Analysis of Cry1Ab toxin bioaccumulation in a food chain of Bt rice, an herbivore and a predator. Ecotoxicology, 2009, 18: 230–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu Z C, Ye G Y, Fu Q, et al. Indirect impact assessment of transgenic rice with cry1Ab gene on predations by the wolf spider, Pirata subpiraticus. Chin J Rice Sci, 2003, 17: 175–178Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu Y F, Zhang G R, Gu D X, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to detect the food relationships of the arthropods in paddy fields (in Chinese). Acta Entomol Sin, 2002, 45: 352–358Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang Y P, Huang B Q. Discussion of the protection and utility of rice leaf-folder’s natural enemies (in Chinese). Nat Enem Insect, 2000, 22: 38–44Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang J, Liang G W, Zeng L. The differential dynamics of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, planthoppers and their natural enemies in two rice paddy ecosystems (in Chinese). Acta Phytophyl Sin, 2011, 38: 1–8Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang J, Liang G W, Zeng L. Effects of rice-planting neighboring with vegetable crops on the population dynamics of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, plant hopper, and their predatory enemies (in Chinese). Chin J Ecol, 2011, 30: 281–289Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen H, Tang W, Xu C G, et al. Transgenic indica rice plants harboring a synthetic cry2A* gene of Bacillus thuringiensis exhibit enhanced resistance against lepidopteran rice pests. Theor Appl Genet, 111: 1330–1337Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen M, Liu Z C, Y G Y, et al. Impacts of transgenic cry1Ab rice on non-target planthoppers and their main predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Hemiptera: Miridae)—a case study of the compatibility of Bt rice with biological control. Biol Control, 2007, 42: 242–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carino F O, Kenmore P E, Dyck V A. The farmcop suction sampler for hoppers and predators in flooded rice fields. Int Rice Res Newsl, 1979, 4: 21–22Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STA User’s Guide, Version 6. Gary: SAS Institute Inc., 1990Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pathak M D, Khan Z R. Insect pests of rice. Los Banos: International Rice Research Institute, 1994Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bashir K, Husnain T, Fatima T, et al. Field evaluation and risk assessment of transgenic indica basmati rice. Mol Breeding, 2004, 13: 301–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maqbool S B, Riazuddin S, Loc N T, et al. Expression of multiple insecticidal genes confers broad resistance against a range of different rice pests. Mol Breeding, 2001, 7: 85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Datta K, Baisakh N, Thet K M, et al. Pyramiding transgenes for multiple resistance in rice against bacterial blight, yellow stem borer and sheath blight. Theor Appl Genet, 2002, 106: 1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ye G Y, Yao H W, Shu Q Y, et al. High levels of stable resistance in transgenic rice with a cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) under field conditions. Crop Protect, 2003, 22: 171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Breitler J C, Vassal J N, Catala M M, et al. Bt rice harbouring cry genes controlled by a constitutive or wound-inducible promoter, protection and transgene expression under Mediterranean field conditions. Plant Biotechnol J, 2004, 2: 417–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ramesh S, Nagadhara D, Reddy V D, et al. Production of transgenic indica rice resistant to yellow stem borer and sap-sucking insects, using super-binary vectors of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Sci, 2004, 166: 1077–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bernal C C, Aguda R M, Cohen M B. Effect of rice lines transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes on the brown planthopper and its predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Entomol Exp Appl, 2002, 102: 21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Han L Z, Wu K M, Peng Y F, et al. Efficacy of transgenic rice expressing Cry1Ac and CpTI against the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). J Invertebr Pathol, 2007, 96: 71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • XueLiang Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yu Han
    • 1
  • Gang Wu
    • 1
  • WanLun Cai
    • 1
  • BenQi Yuan
    • 1
  • Hui Wang
    • 1
  • FangZhou Liu
    • 1
  • ManQun Wang
    • 1
  • HongXia Hua
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and TechnologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Institute of Plant ProtectionJiangxi Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanchangChina

Personalised recommendations