Advertisement

Science China Life Sciences

, Volume 54, Issue 10, pp 931–938 | Cite as

Characteristics of the phytoplankton community and bioaccumulation of heavy metals during algal blooms in Xiangjiang River (Hunan, China)

  • Jie Li
  • FuLi Peng
  • DongBo Ding
  • ShuBing Zhang
  • DeLiang Li
  • Zhang Ting
Open Access
Research Papers

Abstract

The frequency of algal blooms has increased in the mid and downstream reaches of the Xiangjiang River (Hunan, China), one of the most heavily polluted rivers in China. We identified the bloom-forming species in a bloom that occurred mid-late September 2010. In addition, we determined the extent of metal bioaccumulation in the algae and measured the toxicity of the algae using a mouse bioassay. Water samples were collected at upstream (Yongzhou), midstream (Hengyang), and downstream (Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, and Changsha) sites. The dominant species was Aulacoseira granulata, formerly known as Melosira granulata. The heaviest bloom occurred at Xiangtan and Changsha, where the number of A. granulata peaked at 1.3×105 filaments L−1 and chlorophyll a at 0.04 mg L−1. Concentrations of Al, Fe, and Mn were 4.4×103, 768.4, and 138.7 mg kg−1 dry weight in the phytoplankton. The bioaccumulation factor was 4.0×105, 7.7×105, and 3.2×103, respectively. The heavy metal Pb had the greatest tendency to bioaccumulate among the highly toxic heavy metals, with a concentration of 19.2 mg kg−1 dry weight and bioaccumulation factor of 9.6×103. The mouse bioassay suggested the bloom was toxic. The LD50 was 384 mg kg−1 and all surviving mice lost weight during the first 72 h after exposure. Our results demonstrate that blooms of A. granulata in rivers contaminated with heavy metals pose a threat to freshwater ecosystems and human health. Thus, measures should be taken to control eutrophication and heavy metal pollution in such rivers.

Keywords

Aulacoseira granulata bioaccumulation diatom bloom heavy metal Xiangjiang River 

References

  1. 1.
    Chen Y, Qin B, Teubner K, et al. Long-term dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages: Microcystis-domination in Lake Taihu, a large shallow lake in China. J Plankton Res, 2003, 25: 445–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu W J, Li G B, Li D H, et al. Temperature may be the dominating factor on the alternant succession of Aphanizomenon flosaquae and Microcystis aeruginosa in Dianchi Lake. Fresen Environ Bull, 2010, 19: 846–853Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Qu J, Fan M. The current state of water quality and technology development for water pollution control in China. Crit Rev Env Sci Tec, 2010, 40: 519–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zeng H, Song L, Yu Z, et al. Distribution of phytoplankton in the Three-Gorge Reservoir during rainy and dry seasons. Sci Total Environ, 2006, 367: 999–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zheng L L, Song L R, Wu X H, et al. Analysis of morphology and 18S rDNA gene from the causative specie related diatom bloom in Hanjiang River. Acta Hydrobiol Sin, 2009, 33: 562–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oberholster P J, Botha A M, Ashton P J. The influence of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom and water hydrology on algal populations and macroinvertebrate abundance in the upper littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift, South Africa. Ecotoxicology, 2009, 18: 34–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carmichael W W. The toxins of cyanobacteria. Sci Am, 1994, 270: 64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang Z J. Drinking Water Safety Assessment. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2008. 92–122Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Azevedo S M F O, Carmichael W W, Jochimsen E M, et al. Human intoxication by microcystins during renal dialysis treatment in Caruaru-Brazil. Toxicology, 2002, 181: 441–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lefebvre K A, Robertson A. Domoic acid and human exposure risks: A review. Toxicon, 2010, 56: 218–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang Z, Tao F, Du J, et al. Surface water quality and its control in a river with intensive human impacts—a case study of the Xiangjiang River, China. J Environ Manage, 2010, 91: 2483–2490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guo Z, Song J, Xiao X, et al. Spatial distribution and environmental characterization of sediment-associated metals from middle-downstream of Xiangjiang River, southern China. J Cent South Univ T, 2010, 17: 68–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu H J, Wei Y X. The Freshwater Algae of China: Systematics, Taxonomy And Ecology. Beijing: Science Press, 2006. 304–308Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen Y W, Li P F. Clarification for modifying 3 common phytoplankton genera names. J Lakes Sci, 2003, 15: 85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Belaoussoff S, Kevan P G, Murphy S, et al. Assessing tillage disturbance on assemblages of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by using a range of ecological indices. Biodivers Conserv, 2003, 12: 851–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang T, Li L, Song L R. Annual dynamics of phytoplankton abundance and community structure in the Xionghe Reservoir. Acta Ecol Sin, 2009, 29: 2971–2979Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China. Determination methods for examination of water and wastewater (4th edition). Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 2002. 223–671Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ministry of Public Health of the People’s Republic of China and the China Standardization Administration. GB 5749-2006 Standards for drinking water quality. 2006Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ministry of Public Health of the People’s Republic of China and the China Standardization Administration. GB-15193.3-2003 Acute toxicity test. 2003Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hallegraeff G M, Anderson D M, Cembella A D. Manual on harmful marine microalgae (second revised edition). Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 2003: 270–274Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang Q, Li Z, Zeng G, et al. Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques in red soil hilly region: a case study of Xiangjiang watershed, China. Environ Monit Assess, 2009, 152: 123–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen Y S, Wu F C, Lu H Z, et al. Analysis on the water quality changes in the Xiangjiang River from 1981–2000. Resour Environ Yangtze Basin, 2004, 13: 508–512Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gibson C, Anderson J, Haworth E. Aulacoseira subarctica: taxonomy, physiology, ecology and palaeoecology. Eur J Phycol, 2003, 38: 83–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang C, Li X, Lai Z, et al. Seasonal variations of Aulacoseira granulata population abundance in the Pearl River Estuary. Estuar Coast Shelf S, 2009, 85: 585–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kuang Q J, Zhang J Y. On the phytoplankton in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang river and the prevention of water-blooms. Resour Environ Yangtze Basin, 2000, 9: 63–70Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Caldwell G S. The influence of bioactive oxylipins from marine diatoms on invertebrate reproduction and development. Mar Drugs, 2009, 7: 367–400PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zeng Z, Qiu X, Chen K, et al. Acute toxicity examination and Ames test of raw water in Hanjiang River for diatoms. Water Wastewater Eng, 2004, 30: 5–6Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wichard T, Gerecht A, Boersma M, et al. Lipid and fatty acid composition of diatoms revisited: rapid wound-activated change of food quality parameters influences herbivorous copepod reproductive success. ChemBioChem, 2007, 8: 1146–1153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ianora A, Miralto A. Toxigenic effects of diatoms on grazers, phytoplankton and other microbes: a review. Ecotoxicology, 2010, 19: 493–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leflaive J, Ten-Hage L. Chemical interactions in diatoms: role of polyunsaturated aldehydes and precursors. New Phytol, 2009, 184: 794–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chang L W, Lo W S, Lin P. Trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, a product found in cooking oil fumes, induces cell proliferation and cytokine production due to reactive oxygen species in human bronchial epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci, 2005, 87: 337–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Young S C, Chang L W, Lee H L, et al. DNA damages induced by trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), a component of cooking oil fume, in human bronchial epithelial cells. Environ Mol Mutagen, 2010, 51: 315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oishi S, Watanabe M F. Acute toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa and its cardiovascular effects. Environ Res, 1986, 40: 518–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nakano M, Nakano Y, Saito-Taki T, et al. Toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa K-139 strain. Microbiol Immunol, 1989, 33: 787–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ohtake A, Shirai M, Aida T, et al. Toxicity of Microcystis species isolated from natural blooms and purification of the toxin. Appl Environ Microb, 1989, 55: 3202–3207Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Willén T, Mattsson R. Water-blooming and toxin-producing cyanobacteria in Swedish fresh and bracish waters, 1981-1995. Hydrobiologia, 1997, 353: 181–1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Andrinolo D, Pereira P, Giannuzzi L, et al. Occurrence of Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystins in Río de la Plata river (Argentina). Acta Toxicol Argent, 2007, 15: 8–14Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhou W B, Qiu B S. Mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance in algae. J Lakes Sci, 2004, 16: 265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Quiroz-Vázquez P, White K N, Sigee D C. Aluminium, silicon and transition metal dynamics in a non-polluted lake: aquatic concentrations and phytoplankton uptake. Hydrobiologia, 2008, 607: 131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Türker Sacan M, Akmehmet Balcioglu I. Bioaccumulation of aluminium in Dunaliella tertiolecta in natural seawater: aluminium-metal (Cu, Pb, Se) interactions and influence of pH. B Environ Contam Tox, 2001, 66: 214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maiti A K, Saha N C, Paul G. Effect of lead on oxidative stress, Na+ K+ ATPase activity and mitochondrial electron transport chain activity of the brain of Clarias batrachus L. B Environ Contam Tox, 84: 672–676Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Massanyi P, Lukac N, Makarevich A V, et al. Lead-induced alterations in rat kidneys and testes in vivo. J Environ Sci Heal A, 2007, 42: 671–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rossi N, Jamet J L. In situ heavy metals (copper, lead and cadmium) in different plankton compartments and suspended particulate matter in two coupled Mediterranean coastal ecosystems (Toulon Bay, France). Mar Pollut Bull, 2008, 56: 1862–1870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jie Li
    • 1
  • FuLi Peng
    • 2
  • DongBo Ding
    • 1
  • ShuBing Zhang
    • 1
  • DeLiang Li
    • 3
  • Zhang Ting
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Biological Science and TechnologyCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Department of EcologyChina National Environmental Monitoring CentreBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Animal Science and TechnologyHunan Agriculture UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations