Controlling disorder in host lattice by hetero-valence ion doping to manipulate luminescence in spinel solid solution phosphors
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Phosphor materials have been rapidly developed in the past decades. Developing phosphors with desired properties including strong luminescence intensity and long lifetime has attracted widespread attention. Herein, we show that hetero-valence ion doping can serve as a potent strategy to manipulate luminescence in persistent phosphors by controlling disorder in the host lattice. Specifically, spinel phosphor Zn(Ga1−xZnx)(Ga1−xGex)O4:Cr is developed by doping ZnGa2O4:Cr with tetravalent Ge4+. Compared to the original ZnGa2O4:Cr, the doped Zn(Ga1−xZnx)(Ga1−xGex)O4:Cr possesses significantly enhanced persistent luminescence intensity and prolonged decay time. Rietveld refinements show that Ge4+ enters into octahedral sites to substitute Ga3+, which leads to the co-substitution of Ga3+ by Zn2+ for charge compensation. The hetero-valence substitution of Ga3+ by Ge4+ and Zn2+ enriches the charged defects in Zn(Ga1−xZnx)(Ga1−xGex)O4:Cr, making it possible to trap large amounts of charge carriers within the defects during excitation. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurement further confirms that the amount of Cr3+ neighboring charged defects increases with Ge4+ doping. Thus charge carriers released from defects can readily combine with the neighboring Cr3+ to produce bright persistent luminescence after excitation ceases. The hetero-valence ion doping strategy can further be employed to develop many other phosphors and contributes to lighting, photocatalysis and bioimaging.
Keywordspersistent luminescence nanoparticle defect doping
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This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFA0208000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21675120, 21325104), and the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams. We sincerely thank Prof. Zhenxing Wang from Huazhong University of Science and Technology for his assistance in EPR simulation. The EPR simulation is conducted with the SPIN developed by Andrew Ozarowski in the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, USA.
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