Advertisement

Journal of Systems Science and Complexity

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 104–116 | Cite as

Heart rate variability during high-intensity exercise

  • Samuel Sarmiento
  • Juan Manuel García-Manso
  • Juan Manuel Martín-González
  • Diana Vaamonde
  • Javier Calderón
  • Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto
Article

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour of heart rate variability (HRV) during constant-load, high-intensity exercise using a time frequency analysis (Wavelet Transform). Eleven elite cyclists took part in the study (age: 18.6±3.0 years; VO2max: 4.88±0.61 litres·min−1). Initially, all subjects performed an incremental cycloergometer test to determine load power in a constant load-test (379.55±36.02 W; 89.0%). HRV declined dramatically from the start of testing (p <0.05). The behaviour of power spectral density within the LF band mirrored that of total energy, recording a significant decrease from the outset LF peaks fell rapidly thereafter, remaining stable until the end of the test. HF-VHF fell sharply in the first 20 to 30 seconds. The relative weighting (%) of HF-VHF was inverted with the onset of fatigue, [1.6% at the start, 7.1 (p <0.05) at the end of the first phase, and 43.1% (p <0.05) at the end of the test]. HF-VHFpeak displayed three phases: a moderate initial increase, followed by a slight fall, thereafter increasing to the end of the test. The LF/HF-VHF ratio increased at the start, later falling progressively until the end of the first phase and remaining around minimal values until the end of the test.

Key words

Cycling heart rate variability wavelet 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Akselrod S D, Gordon D, Ubel F A, Shannon D C, Berger A C, and Cohen R J, Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations: A quantitative probe of beat-to-beat cardiovascular control, Science, 1981, 213(4504): 220–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Pomeranz B, Macauley R J, Caudil M A, et al., Assessment of autonomic function in humans by heart rate spectral analysis, Am. J. Phys. (Heart Circ Physiol), 1985, 248(1): H151–H153.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Perini R and Veicsteinas A, Heart rate variability and autonomic activity at rest and during exercise in various physiological conditions, Eur. J. Appl. Physiol, 2003, 90(3–4): 317–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Aubert A E, Spes B, and Beckers F, Heart rate variability in athletes, Sport Med., 2003, 33(12): 889–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, Heart rate variability, Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use, Eur. Heart J., 1976, 17: 354–381.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Tulppo M P, Makikallio T H, Takala T E, Seppanen T, and Huikuri H V, Quantitative beat-to-beat analysis of heart rate dynamics during exercise, Am J Phys. (Heart Circ Physiol), 1996, 271(1): H244–H252.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Cottin F, Médigue C, Leprêtre L M, Papelier Y, Koralsztein J P, and Billat V, Heart rate variability during exercise performed below and above ventilatory threshold, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 2004, 36(4): 594–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Pichon A P, De Bisschop C, Rouland M, Denejan A, and Papelier Y, Spectral analysis of heart rate variability during exercise in trained subjects, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 2004, 36(10): 1702–1708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Sumi K, Suzuki S, Matsubara M, Ando Y, and Kobayashi F, Heart rate variability during high-intensity field exercise in female distance runners, Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports, 2006, 16(5): 314–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Anosov O, Patzak A, Kononovich Y, and Persson P B, High-frequency oscillations of the heart rate during ramp load reflect the human anaerobic threshold, Eur. J. Appl. Physiol, 2000, 83(4-5): 388–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Cottin F, Médigue C, Lopes P, Leprêtre P M, Heubert R, and Billat V, Ventilatory thresholds assessment from heart rate variability during an incremental exhaustive running test, Int. J. Sports Med., 2007, 28(4): 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Sarmiento S, Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (VFC), en deportistas, durante la aplicación de cargas incrementales y estables de diferentes intensidades: Un análisis tiempo-frecuencia (Wavelet), Ph. D. Thesis, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, GC, Spain, 2008.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Bernardi L and Piepoli M F, Autonomic nervous system adaptation during exercise, Ital. Hearth J., 2001, 2(8): 831–839.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Carter J B, Banister E W, and Blaber A P, Effect of endurance exercise on autonomic control of heart rate, Sports Med., 2003, 33(1): 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Borresen J and Lambert M I, Autonomic control of heart rate during and after exercise: Measurements and implications for monitoring training status, Sport Med., 2008, 38(8): 633–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Pichot V, Busso T, Roche F, Garet M, Costes F, Duverney D, Lacour J R, and Barthélémy J C, Autonomic adaptations to intensive and overload training periods: A laboratory study, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 2002, 34(10): 1660–1666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Malpas S C, Neural influences on cardiovascular variability: Possibilities and pitfalls, Am. J. Physiol (Heart Circ Physiol), 2002, 282(1): H6–H20.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Perini R, Milesi S, Fisher N M, Pendergast D R, and Veicsteinas A, Heart rate variability during dynamic exercise in elderly males and females, Eur. J. Appl. Physiol, 2000, 82(1–2): 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Hirsch J A and Bishop B, Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in humans: How breathing pattern modulates heart rate, Am. J. Physiol, 1981, 241(4): H620–H629.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Casadei B, Cochrane S, Johnston J, Conway J, and Sleight P, Pitfalls in the interpretation of spectral analysis of the heart rate variability during exercise in humans, Acta Physiol Scand, 1995, 153(2): 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Rowell L B and O’Leary D S, Reflex control of the circulation during exercise: Chemoreflexes and mechanoreflexes, J. Appl. Physiol, 1990, 69(2): 407–418.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Casadei B, Moon J, Johnston J, Caiazza A, and Sleight P, Is respiratory sinus arrhythmia a good index of cardiac vagal tone in exercise? J. Appl. Physiol, 1996, 81(2): 556–564.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Bechbache R R and Duffin J, The entrainment of breathing frequency by exercise rhythm, J. Physiol, 1977, 272(3): 553–561.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Bramble D M and Carrier D R, Running and breathing in mammals, Science, 1983, 219(4582): 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Kamath M V, Fallen E L, and McKelvie R, Effects of steady state exercise on the power spectrum of heart rate variability, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 1991, 23(4): 428–434.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Michelini L C and Stern J E, Exercise-induced neuronal plasticity in central autonomic networks: Role in cardiovascular control, Exp. Physiol, 2009, 94(9): 947–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Vanderlei L C, Silva R A, Pastre C M, Azevedo F M, and Godoy M F, Comparison of the Polar S810i monitor and the ECG for the analysis of heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains, Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2008, 41(10): 854–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Nunan D, Jakovljevic G, Donovan G, Hodges L D, Sandercock G R, and Brodie D A, Levels of agreement for RR intervals and short-term heart rate variability obtained from the Polar S810 and an alternative system, Eur. J. Appl. Physiol, 2008, 103(5): 529–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Mainardi L T, Bianchi A M, and Cerutti S, Time-frequency and time-varying analysis for assessing the dynamic responses of cardiovascular control, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 2002, 30(1–3): 175–217.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Lewis M J, Kingsley M, Short A L, and Simpson K, Influence of high-frequency bandwidth on heart rate variability analysis during physical exercise, Biomed Signal Process Control, 1991, 2(1): 34–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Torrence C and Compo G P, A practical guide to wavelet analysis, Bull Am. Met. Soc., 1998, 79: 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Percival D and Walden A, Wavelet Methods for Time Series Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Victor R G, Bertocci L A, Pryor S L, and Nunnally R L, Sympathetic nerve discharge is coupled to muscle cell pH during exercise in humans, J. Clin. Invest., 1988, 82(4): 1301–1305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Rotto D M, Stebbins C L, and Kaufman M P, Reflex cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to increasing H+ activity in cat hindlimb muscle, J. Appl. Physiol, 1989, 67(1): 256–263.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Sinoway L, Phophet S, Gorman I, Mosher T, Shenberger J, Dolecki M, Briggs R, and Zelis R, Muscle acidosis during static exercise is associated with calf vasoconstriction, J. Appl. Physiol, 1989, 66(1): 429–436.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Vissing J, Vissing S F, MacLean D A, Saltin B, Quistorff B, and Haller R G, Sympathetic activation in exercise is not dependent on muscle acidosis: Direct evidence from studies in metabolic myopathies, J. Clin. Invest., 1998, 101(8): 1654–1660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Hartley L H, Mason J W, Hogan R P, Jones L G, Kotchen T A, Mougey E H, Wherry F E, Pennington L L, and Ricketts P T, Multiple hormonal responses to graded exercise in relation to physical training, J. Appl. Physiol, 1972, 33: 602–606.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Galbo H, Holst J J, and Christensen N J, Glucagon and plasma catecholamine responses to graded and prolonged exercise in man, J. Appl. Physiol, 1975, 38(1): 70–76.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Mazzeo R S, Catecholamine response to acute and chronic exercise, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 1991, 23(7): 839–845.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Yamamoto Y, Hughson R L, and Peterson J C, Autonomic control of heart rate during exercise studied by heart rate variability spectral analysis, J. Appl. Physiol, 1991, 71(3): 1136–1142.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Kannankeril P J, Le F K, Kadish A H, and Goldberger J J, Parasympathetic effects on heart rate recovery after exercise, J. Investig. Med., 2004, 52(6): 394–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    O’Leary D S, Rossi N F, and Churchill P C, Substantial cardiac parasympathetic activity exists during heavy dynamic exercise in dogs, Am. J. Physiol (Heart Circ Physiol), 1997, 273(5): H2135–H2140.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Potts J T, Shi X R, and Raven P B, Carotid baroreflex responsiveness during dynamic exercise in humans, Am. J. Physiol (Heart Circ Physiol), 1993, 265(6): H1928–H1938.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Papelier Y, Escourrou P, Gauthier J P, and Rowell L B, Carotid baroreflex control of blood pressure and heart rate in men during dynamic exercise, J. Appl. Physiol, 1994, 77(2): 502–506.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Robinson B F, Epstein S E, Beiser G D, and Braunwald E, Control of heart rate by the autonomic nervous system: Studies in man on the interrelations between baroreceptor mechanisms and exercise, Circ. Res., 1996, 19: 400–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Nakamura Y, Yamamoto Y, and Muraoka I, Autonomic control of heart rate during physical exercise and fractal dimension of heart rate variability, J. Appl. Physiol, 1993, 74(2): 875–881.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Cottin F, Papelier Y, and Escourrou P, Effects of exercise load and breathing frequency on heart rate and blood pressure variability during dynamic exercise, Int. J. Sports Med., 1999, 20(4): 232–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Yamamoto Y, Hughson R L, and Nakamura Y, Autonomic nervous system responses to exercise in relation to ventilatory threshold, Chest, 1992, 101(5): 206S–210S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Cottin F, Leprêtre P M, Lopes P, Papelier Y, Médigue C, and Billat V, Assessment of ventilatory thresholds from heart rate variability in well-trained subjects during cycling, Int. J. Sports Med., 2006, 27(12): 959–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    García-Manso J M, Sarmiento S, Martín-González J M, Calderón F J, and Da Silva-Grigoletto M E, Wavelet transform analysis of heart rate variability for determining ventilatory thresholds in cyclists, Rev. Andal. Med. Deporte, 2008, 1(3): 90–97.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Blain G, Meste O, Blain A, and Bermon S, Time-frequency analysis of heart rate variability reveals cardiolocomotor coupling during dynamic cycling exercise in humans, Am. J. Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2009, 296(5): H1651-1659.Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Lunt H C, Corbett J, Barwood M J, and Tipton M J, Cycling cadence affects heart rate variability, Physiol Meas, 2011, 32(8): 1133–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Macor F, Fagaard R, and Amery A, Power spectral analysis of RR interval and blood pressure shortterm variability at rest and during dynamic exercise: Comparison between cyclists and controls, Int. J. Sports Med., 1996, 17(3): 175–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Niizeki K, Intramuscular pressure-induced inhibition of cardiac contraction: Implications for cardiaclocomotor synchronization, Am. J. Physiol Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol, 2005, 288(3): R645–R650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Sarmiento
    • 1
  • Juan Manuel García-Manso
    • 1
  • Juan Manuel Martín-González
    • 2
  • Diana Vaamonde
    • 3
  • Javier Calderón
    • 4
  • Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Physical EducationUniversity of Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas PalmasSpain
  2. 2.Physics DepartmentUniversity of Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas PalmasSpain
  3. 3.Department of Morphological Sciences, School of MedicineUniversity of CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  4. 4.Physical Activity Sciences FacultyPolytechnic University of MadridMadridSpain
  5. 5.Andalusian Centre of Sports MedicineCórdobaSpain

Personalised recommendations