Influence of teacher-perceived organisational culture and school policy on Chinese teachers’ intention to use technology: an extension of technology acceptance model

  • Fang HuangEmail author
  • Timothy Teo
Cultural and Regional Perspectives


This study aimed to investigate the influences of organisational culture and teachers’ perception of the importance of policy on teachers’ technology acceptance in China. A total of 502 teachers from 30 Chinese universities filled in the questionnaire designed for the cross-sectional study, which measured teachers’ perceptions of the organisational culture in the universities in which they work, their perception of the importance of school policy regarding technology use, and their intention to use technology in teaching. The results of the structural equation modelling indicated that perceived usefulness, attitude towards using technology, organisational culture, and teacher perceptions of the importance of school policy on technology use were significant antecedents to teachers’ behavioural intention to use technology. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use significantly influenced attitude, and perceived ease of use significantly influenced perceived usefulness. In addition, organisational culture significantly influenced the perceived importance of school policy. The findings enriched the understanding of technology acceptance theories by empirically proving the role of organisational culture and the perceived importance of policy on teachers’ technology acceptance in the Chinese context.


Organizational culture School policy Intentions to use technology China 



We thank for teachers who provided help in this study.


This study was supported by a project titled “Theme-based Teaching of Intercultural College English” (14CWYJ20), funded by Social Science Planning Office of Shandong Province, China.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,50(2), 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Emran, M., Mezhuyev, V., & Kamaludin, A. (2018). Technology acceptance model in M-learning context: A systematic review. Computers & Education,125, 389–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvesson, M. (2002). Understanding organizational culture. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin,103, 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barron, A. E., Kemker, K., Harmes, C., & Kalaydjian, K. (2003). Large-scale research study on technology in K–12 schools: Technology integration as it relates to the National Technology Standards. Journal of Research on Technology in Education,35(4), 489–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, H. (2001). How are teachers using computers in instruction? Paper presented at the 2001 meeting of the American Educational Research Association. WA: Seattle.Google Scholar
  7. Birch, D., & Burnett, B. (2009). Bringing academics on board: Encouraging institution-wide diffusion of e-learning environments. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology,25(1), 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carmines, E. G., & McIver, J. P. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables. In G. W. Bohrnstedt & E. F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social measurement: Current issues (pp. 65–115). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Czerniewicz, L., & Brown, C. (2009). A study of the relationship between institutional policy, organisational culture and e-learning use in four South African universities. Computers & Education,53(1), 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly,13(3), 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dawes, L. (2001). What stops teachers using new technology? In M. Leask (Ed.), Issues in teaching using ICT (pp. 61–79). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  13. Devos, G., Bouckenooghe, D., Engels, N., Hotton, G., & Aelterman, A. (2007). An assessment of well-being of principals in Flemish primary schools. Journal of Educational Administration,45, 33–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Du, R., Liu, L., Straub, D. W., & Knight, M. B. (2017). The impact of espoused national cultural values on innovative behaviour: An empirical study in the Chinese IT-enabled global service industry. Asia Pacific Business Review,23(3), 354–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DuFour, R., & Berkey, T. (1995). The principal as staff developer. Journal of Staff Development,16(4), 2–6.Google Scholar
  16. Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2010). Teacher technology change. Journal of Research on Technology in Education,42(3), 255–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics,5(1), 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fan, X., Miller, B. C., Park, K. E., Winward, B. W., Christensen, M., Grotevant, H. D., et al. (2006). An exploratory study about inaccuracy and invalidity in adolescent self-report surveys. Field Methods,18(3), 223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Farrel, J. P. (2000). Why is educational reform so difficult? Similar descriptions, different prescriptions, failed explanations. Curriculum Inquiry,30(1), 83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975a). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  21. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975b). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  22. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research,18(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fullan, M., & Stiegelbauer, S. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  25. Hennessy, S., Ruthven, K., & Brindley, S. (2005). Teacher perspectives on integrating ICT into subject teaching: Commitment, constraints, caution, and change. Journal of Curriculum Studies,37, 155–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  27. Hofstede, G. (2008). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hoy, W. K., & Tarter, C. J. (1997). The road to open and healthy schools: A handbook for change (Elementary ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hu, Z., & McGrath, I. (2011). Innovation in higher education in China: Are teachers ready to integrate ICT in English language teaching? Technology, Pedagogy and Education,20(1), 41–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Huang, H. M., & Liaw, S. S. (2005). Exploring users’ attitudes and intentions toward the Web as a survey tool. Computers in Human Behavior,21(5), 729–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang, F., Teo, T., Sánchez-Prieto, J. C., García-Peñalvo, F. J., & Olmos-Migueláñez, S. (2019a). Cultural values and technology adoption: A model comparison with university teachers from China and Spain. Computers & Education,133, 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang, F., Teo, T., & Zhou, M. (2019b). Factors affecting Chinese English as a foreign language teachers’ technology acceptance: A qualitative study. Journal of Educational Computing Research,57(1), 83–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huang, F., Teo, T., & Zhou, M. (2019c). Chinese students’ intentions to use the Internet for learning. Educational Technology Research and Development. Scholar
  34. Joo, Y. J., Park, S., & Lim, E. (2018). Factors influencing preservice teachers’ intention to use technology: TPACK, teacher self-efficacy, and technology acceptance model. Journal of Educational Technology & Society,21(3), 48–59.Google Scholar
  35. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Leem, J., & Sung, E. (2019). Teachers’ beliefs and technology acceptance concerning smart mobile devices for SMART education in South Korea. British Journal of Educational Technology,50(2), 601–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Li, L. (2014). Understanding language teachers’ practice with educational technology: A case from China. System,46, 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lim, C. P., & Khine, M. S. (2006). Managing teachers’ barriers to ICT integration in Singapore schools. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,14(1), 97–125.Google Scholar
  39. Lok, P., & Crawford, J. (2004). The effect of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Management Development,23(4), 321–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lund, D. B. (2003). Organizational culture and job satisfaction. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing,18, 219–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ma, W. W. K., Andersson, R., & Streith, K. O. (2005). Examining user acceptance of computer technology: An empirical study of student teachers. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,21(6), 387–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Martins, E. C., & Terblanche, F. (2003). Building organizational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management,6, 64–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maslowski, R. (2001). School culture and school performance: An explorative study into the organizational culture of secondary schools and their effects. Twente: Twente University Press.Google Scholar
  44. McCoy, S., Galletta, D. F., & King, W. R. (2007). Applying TAM across cultures: The need for caution. European Journal of Information Systems,16(1), 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nistor, N., Lerche, T., Weinberger, A., Ceobanu, C., & Heymann, O. (2014). Towards the integration of culture into the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. British Journal of Educational Technology,45(1), 36–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. O’Reilly, C. (1989). Corporations, culture, and commitment: Motivation and social control in organizations. California Management Review,31, 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Peterson, P., McCarthey, S., & Elmore, R. (1996). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal,33, 119–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pierce, R., & Ball, L. (2009). Perceptions that may affect teachers’ intention to use technology in secondary mathematics classes. Educational Studies in Mathematics,71(3), 299–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2008). An introduction to applied multivariate analysis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Ritter, N. L. (2017). Technology acceptance model of online learning management systems in higher education: A meta-analytic structural equation model. International Journal of Learning Management Systems,5, 1–15. Scholar
  51. Roca, J. C., & Gagné, M. (2008). Understanding e-learning continuance intention in the workplace: A self-determination theory perspective. Computers in Human Behavior,24(4), 1585–1604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sang, G., Valcke, M., van Braak, J., Tondeur, J., & Zhu, C. (2011). Predicting ICT integration into classroom teaching in Chinese primary schools: Exploring the complex interplay of teacher-related variables. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,27, 160–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  54. Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2). San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  55. Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Tondeur, J. (2019). The technology acceptance model (TAM): A meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach to explaining teachers’ adoption of digital technology in education. Computers & Education,128, 13–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Somekh, B. (2008). Factors affecting teachers’ pedagogical adoption of ICT. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 449–460). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Srite, M., & Karahanna, E. (2006). The role of espoused national cultural values in technology acceptance. MIS Quarterly,30(3), 679–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Staessens, K. (1990). The professional culture in elementary schools in Flanders: An empirical study in reformed primary education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Leuven, Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.Google Scholar
  59. Straub, D., Keil, M., & Brenner, W. (1997). Testing the technology acceptance model across cultures: A three country study. Information & Management,33(1), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Straub, D., Loch, K., Evaristo, R., Karahanna, E., & Srite, M. (2002). Toward a theory-based measurement of culture. Human Factors in Information Systems,10(1), 61–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tarhini, A., Hone, K., Liu, X., & Tarhini, T. (2017). Examining the moderating effect of individual-level cultural values on users’ acceptance of e-learning in developing countries: A structural equation modeling of an extended technology acceptance model. Interactive Learning Environments,25(3), 306–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tearle, P. (2003). ICT implementation: What makes the difference? British Journal of Educational Technology,34(5), 567–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Teo, T. (2009). Modelling technology acceptance in education: A study of pre-service teachers. Computers & Education,52, 302–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Teo, T. (2011). Influence of user characteristics on teachers’ intention to use technology: Some research evidence. International Journal of Instructional Media,38(2), 115–124.Google Scholar
  65. Teo, T., & Huang, F. (2019). Investigating the influence of individually espoused cultural values on teachers’ intentions to use educational technologies in Chinese universities. Interactive Learning Environments,27(5–6), 813–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Teo, T., Huang, F., & Hoi, C. K. W. (2018). Explicating the influences that explain intention to use technology among English teachers in China. Interactive Learning Environments,26(4), 460–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Teo, T., & Zhou, M. (2017). The influence of teachers’ conceptions of teaching and learning on their technology acceptance. Interactive Learning Environments,25(4), 513–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Teo, T., Zhou, M., Fan, A. C. W., & Huang, F. (2019). Factors that influence university students’ intention to use Moodle: A study in Macau. Educational Technology Research and Development,67(3), 749–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tsai, Y. R. (2015). Applying the technology acceptance model (TAM) to explore the effects of a Course Management System (CMS)-assisted EFL writing instruction. CALICO,32(1), 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tuan, L. T., & Venkatesh, S. (2010). Organizational culture and technological innovation adoption in private hospitals. International Business Research,3(3), 144–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Venkatesh, V., & Bala, H. (2008). Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decision Sciences,39(2), 273–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science,46, 186–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wang, S. R. (2016). Interpretation of the guidelines on college English teaching. Foreign Language World,3, 2–10.Google Scholar
  74. Wong, G. K. (2015). Understanding technology acceptance in pre-service teachers of primary mathematics in Hong Kong. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology,31(6), 713–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wong, G. K. (2016). The behavioral intentions of Hong Kong primary teachers in adopting educational technology. Educational Technology Research and Development,64(2), 313–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wong, K. T., Teo, T., & Russo, S. (2012). Influence of gender and computer teaching efficacy on computer acceptance among Malaysian student teachers: An extended technology acceptance model. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(7), 1190–1207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sadaf, A., Newby, T. J., & Ertmer, P. A. (2012). Exploring pre-service teachers’ beliefs about using Web 2.0 technologies in K-12 classroom. Computers & Education,59(3), 937–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yang, S. C., & Huang, Y. F. (2008). A study of high school English teachers’ behavior, concerns and beliefs in integrating information technology into English instruction. Computers in Human Behavior,24, 1085–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yue, X. (2006). Teaching-researching culture and teachers’ individuality development. Teacher Education Research,18(2), 27–32.Google Scholar
  80. Zhu, C. (2015). Organizational culture and technology-enhanced innovation in higher education. Technology, Pedagogy and Education,24(1), 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhu, C., Devos, G., & Li, Y. (2011). Teacher perceptions of school culture and their organizational commitment and well-being in a Chinese school. Asia Pacific Education Review,12(2), 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Foreign LanguagesQingdao UniversityQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationMorduch UniversityMurdochAustralia

Personalised recommendations