Latent profile analysis of Korean undergraduates’ academic emotions in e-learning environment

  • Jong-Yeon Lee
  • Min Jung CheiEmail author
Cultural and Regional Perspectives


This study aimed to classify latent profiles of Korean undergraduates’ academic emotions in an e-learning environment, and to examine the effects of instructional variables on these profiles as well as the differences in their learning outcomes. A survey was conducted among 777 students who participated in online courses offered by a Korean university. Latent profile analysis revealed four types of emotional profiles: a moderate type (MT); a positive type (PT); a negative type (NT); and an ambivalent type (AT). MT comprised 72.5% of the total number of participants and showed medium levels of both positive emotions (PE) and negative emotions (NE). PT comprised 13.1% of the participants and showed high levels of PE and low levels of NE. NT comprised 10.2% of the participants and showed low levels of PE and high levels of NE. AT comprised 4.2% of the participants and both showed high levels of both PE and NE. Further analysis showed that the quality of instructional content, interaction, the system, and evaluation all proved to be predictors of emotional profiles. Moreover, they indicated differences in perceived achievement and in learner satisfaction. Based on these results, this study provides a discussion and suggestions for further studies.


Academic emotions Positive emotions Negative emotions Latent profile analysis e-Learning Instructional variable 



This study was supported by Konkuk University in 2016.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was carried out under the approval of the instructors in charge of the target courses. A survey was administered to their participants after explicitly explaining its purpose. The participants were clearly informed that their participation was on a totally voluntary basis and they would not be disadvantaged based on their responses. The participants were asked to respond to the survey items anonymously if they decided to participate in the study.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational TechnologyKonkuk UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Education Advancement CenterHankuk University of Foreign StudiesSeoulKorea

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