Metacognition in covariation reasoning relevant to performance achievement mediated by experiential values in a simulation game

  • Jon-Chao Hong
  • Ming-Yueh HwangEmail author
  • Ming-Chou Liu
  • Chi-Ruei Tsai
  • Kai-Hsin Tai
Research Artlcle


The Chinese proverb “heal a headache by curing the head and heal foot pain by curing the feet” alludes to ineffective work resulting from a lack of covariation in reasoning. Actually, much problem solving relies on the analysis of how two or more factors vary in correlation with another related variant (i.e., covariation reasoning). To further investigate covariation reasoning and its related affective factors, we designed a website called “No Good (NG) Bread” for senior vocational high school students in Taipei who had taken baking courses for 1 year to apply their knowledge in solving baking-related problems. Data collected from 113 participants aged 16 to 17 were validated by confirmatory factor analysis using Visual PLS 1.04 to examine the interrelatedness among metacognition, experiential values, and performance achievement. The examination revealed that metacognition was positively related to hedonic and utilitarian experiential values, which were subsequently positively related to the students’ learning achievements. The results imply that websites can be developed for specialized courses, such as nursing or automobile repair, to develop students’ covariation reasoning for more effective problem solving.


Experiential value Human–computer interface Improving classroom teaching Interactive learning environments Metacognition 



This work was financially supported by the “Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences” of National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) from The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflict of interest involving either of the authors of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Research Excellence in Learning SciencesNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Education and Human Potentials DevelopmentNational Dong Hwa UniversityHualienTaiwan

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