Using feedback to promote student participation in online learning programs: evidence from a quasi-experimental study
- 81 Downloads
How should learner analytics and different media be used to optimize feedback to increase students’ motivation and sense of learning community in online learning programs? This study was designed to examine the usage of feedback delivery methods (text only, video only, or both) and learner analytics (individual vs. class average) to answer the above question. Two consecutive surveys were administrated to the students of a series of online courses over four semesters which resulted in a sample of 96. Using this quasi-experimental design, we aimed to capture changes in students’ perceived feedback quality, motivation, and sense of learning community when different feedback delivery methods and learner analytics were introduced. The findings revealed that students who received both video and text feedback were least motivated and lowest in their sense of online learning community when compared with students who received just video or text feedback. No significant differences were found between students who received video or text feedback regarding motivation and their sense of learning community. The findings also showed that when sharing class average, students’ motivation decreased. This study provides insights into how instructors might use media and learner analytics when designing feedback to motivate and promote student learning in online learning programs.
KeywordsStudent feedback Motivation Online learning community Learner analytics Video feedback Online learning
We thank the Journal Editor and anonymous referees for their useful suggestions and comments.
Compliance with ethical standards
All authors have reviewed and agreed with the manuscript at this current form to submit for the consideration of possible publication by ETR&D. The authors declare that we have complied with the ethical standards outlined by the journal, and there is no conflict of interest, and no grant or other financial support received for this study.
- Allen, I., & Seaman, J. (2007). Making the grade: Online education in the United States, 2006. Newburyport, MA. Retrieved December 15, 2018 from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED530101.
- Bower, M. (2005). Online assessment feedback: Competitive, individualistic, or… preferred form! Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 24(2), 121–147. Retrieved Novermber 1, 2018 from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ724773.
- Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental design for research. Handbook of Research on Teaching. https://doi.org/10.1037/022808.
- Crook, A., Mauchline, A., Maw, S., Lawson, C., Drinkwater, R., Lundqvist, K., et al. (2012). The use of video technology for providing feedback to students: Can it enhance the feedback experience for staff and students? Computers & Education, 58(1), 386–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.025.Google Scholar
- Draus, P. J., Curran, M. J., & Trempus, M. S. (2014). The influence of instructor-generated video content on student satisfaction with and engagement in asynchronous online classes. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning & Teaching, 10(2), 240–254. Retrieved January 5, 2018 from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol10no2/draus_0614.pdf.
- Drouin, M. A. (2008). The relationship between students’ perceived sense of community and satisfaction, achievement, and retention in an online course. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 9(3), 267–284. Retrieved October 5, 2018 from http://www.anitacrawley.net/Resources/Articles/THERELATIONSHIPBETWEENSTUDENTS%92.pdf.
- Edouard, G. (2015). Effectiveness of audio feedback in distance education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 12(4), 41–48. Retrieved September 6, 2018 from http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Apr_15/Apr15.pdf#page=45.
- Garrison, D. R. (2009). Implications of online learning for the conceptual development and practice of distance education. Journal of Distance Education, 23(2), 93–104. Retrieved November 5, 2018 from http://www.ijede.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/471/888.
- Griffiths, M. E., & Graham, C. R. (2009). Using asynchronous video in online classes: Results from a pilot study. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 6(3), 65–76. Retrieved December 5, 2018 from http://22.214.171.124/Journal/Mar_09/Mar_09.pdf#page=69.
- Ice, P., Curtis, R., Phillips, P., & Wells, J. (2007). Using asynchronous audio feedback to enhance teaching presence and students’ sense of community. Journal of Asynchronous Learning, 11(2), 3–25. Retrieved October 5, 2017 from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ842694.
- Keller, J. M. (2010). Tools to support motivational design. Motivational design for learning and performance (pp. 267–295). Boston, MA: Springer.Google Scholar
- LaBarbera, R. (2013). The relationship between students’ perceived sense of connectedness to the instructor and satisfaction in online courses. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 14(4), 209–220. Retrieved October 7, 2017 from https://search.proquest.com/openview/eb763bf44b995ec2c32bd2eff99fd8d0/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=29705.
- Lederman, D. (2018). Who is studying online (and where)? Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved October 7, 2017 from https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/article/2018/01/05/new-us-data-show-continued-growth-college-students-studying.
- Martocchio, J. J., & Webster, J. (1992). Effects of feedback and cognitive playfulness on performance in microcomputer software training. Personnel Psychology, 45(3), 553–578. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1992.tb00860.x.Google Scholar
- McCarthy, J. (2015). Evaluating written, audio and video feedback in higher education summative assessment tasks. Issues in Educational Research, 25(2), 153–169. Retrieved October 7, 2017 from http://www.iier.org.au/iier25/mccarthy.html.
- Moore, M. G. (2013). The theory of transactional distance. In M. G. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (2nd ed., pp. 84–103). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Robb, C. A., & Sutton, J. (2014). The Importance of social presence and motivation in distance learning. The Journal of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering, 30(2), 2–10. Retrieved October 7, 2017 from https://www.atmae.org/resource/resmgr/articles/robb___sutton-the_importance.pdf.
- William, D. (2013). Formative assessment. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.), SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment (pp. 165–166). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
- Wise, A. (2014). Designing pedagogical interventions to support student use of learning analytics. Proceedins of the Fourth International Conference on Learning Analytics And Knowledge - LAK ’14 (pp. 203–211). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
- Zhao, C.-M., & Kuh, G. D. (2004). Adding value: Learning communities and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 45(2), 115–138. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:RIHE.0000015692.88534.de.Google Scholar