Educational Technology Research and Development

, Volume 67, Issue 6, pp 1573–1591 | Cite as

The impact of student engagement on learning outcomes in a cyber-flipped course

  • Li-Chun Lin
  • I-Chun Hung
  • Kinshuk
  • Nian-Shing ChenEmail author
Development Article


A cyber-flipped course was conducted with the flipped classroom pedagogy by using a wholly online approach for all learning activities in asynchronous and synchronous class sessions. Literature suggests that traditional flipped courses can effectively enhance students’ learning outcomes in comparison to non-flipped courses. However, conducting all asynchronous and synchronous learning activities using a wholly online approach has not been reported. This paper aimed to investigate how student engagement in four different types of learning activities affects their learning outcomes in a cyber-flipped course. Results show that the learning activities with the flipped classroom pedagogy can be successfully implemented and conducted in a wholly online course along with time and space flexibility for learners. This study also found that students who watched more pre-recorded video lectures tended to participate in the synchronous learning activities more actively and obtained a higher semester grade; higher completion of asynchronous learning activities had benefited students’ understanding of the learning concepts. Furthermore, students who had a high level of readiness by attending synchronous class sessions on time and keeping their webcams activated had more frequent and proactive interactions with their peers and instructor.


Cyber-flipped course Synchronous learning activities Engagements Online interaction Learning outcomes 



The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C., for financially supporting this research under Grant Nos. MOST-107-2511-H-224-007-MY3, MOST-106-2511-S-224-005-MY3, and MOST 106-2917-I-564-065.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information ManagementNational Sun Yat-sen UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Department of Industrial & Systems EngineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.College of Information, Discovery Park, Suite E290DUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Applied Foreign LanguagesNational Yunlin University of Science and TechnologyYunlinTaiwan, ROC

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