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Sources of teachers’ self-efficacy for technology integration from formal, informal, and independent professional learning


Teachers do not consistently maximize the potential of classroom technologies for enhancing student learning. As their self-efficacy is positively associated with technology integration, developing teachers’ self-efficacy could increase high-quality integration. We investigate how a holistic system of professional learning about technology integration including formal, informal, and independent professional learning might allow for access to and prompt reflection on self-efficacy source information. We interviewed six middle school math and science teachers from two schools where leadership teams participated in a leadership development program aiming to ultimately support teachers’ technology integration. To gather the teachers’ perspectives, we asked them to reflect on and explain visual displays of their reported confidence in technologies and frequency of professional learning. Through core assertions, we suggest a holistic system of learning supports teachers’ access to three sources of self-efficacy information (verbal persuasion, vicarious experiences, and mastery experiences) and prompts teachers’ reflection on source information such that it can impact their self-efficacy. We make recommendations for leaders to operate on these findings, as leaders are responsible for fostering the conditions necessary for teachers’ effective technology integration, as well as recommendations for future research to increase the generalizability and depth of understanding.

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This study was funded by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education under Grant R305A110913 and the Curry School Research and Development Fund under the Innovative, Developmental, Exploratory Award.

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Correspondence to Emily A. Barton.

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Barton, E.A., Dexter, S. Sources of teachers’ self-efficacy for technology integration from formal, informal, and independent professional learning. Education Tech Research Dev 68, 89–108 (2020).

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  • Teacher professional development
  • Self-efficacy
  • Technology integration
  • Informal learning
  • Independent learning
  • Teacher reflection