Factors that influence TPACK adoption by teacher educators in the US

  • Rick VoithoferEmail author
  • Michael J. Nelson
  • Guang Han
  • Autumm Caines
Research Article


This study presents the results of a survey of 842 teacher educators at 541 different institutions across the 50 US states that examined the state and direction of technology integration preparation in accredited teacher education programs. Using both descriptive statistics and regression analysis the study provides a general description of the characteristics of these teacher educators, their Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) adoption, and the relationships between individual and institutional factors and their TPACK adoption. The results of the research show that TPACK adoption is generally low among these teacher educators and that there are multiple personal and institutional factors that influence TPACK adoption. The participants had a significant amount of both K12 and teacher education experience and had high levels of comfort with their technological knowledge. Factors that were shown to influence TPACK adoption included the highest degree offered at their institution, their self-rated TPACK score, and their individual adoption of the International Society for Teaching and Education (ISTE) standards. The results address implications for teacher educator professional development and program accreditation.


Teacher educators TPACK Technology integration Teacher education 



Funding was funded by Ohio State University College of Education and Human Ecology (Grant: Seed Grant).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.The Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Agricultural Education & StudiesIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  4. 4.University of Michigan – DearbornDearbornUSA

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